Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Spondylosis deformans

Synonym(s): Hypertrophic spondylosisVentral bridging spondylosis

Contributor(s): Rodney Bagley

Introduction

  • Non-infectious, non-septic condition of spine.
  • Signs: very rarely significant.
  • Diagnosis: radiographic finding.
  • Treatment: surgery for decompression of nerve roots if symptomatic.
  • Prognosis: good, rarely significant.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • The etiology of spondylosis deformans in older animals is not always known. However, chronic, mild vertebral instability and associated intervertebral disc damage, specifically of the anulus fibrosis, are probable causes.
  • This may be initiated by a ventral extrusion of intervertebral disc material.

Pathophysiology

  • Spondylosis deformans, or ventral bridging spondylosis, is a commonly encountered (presumably degenerative), vertebral and paravertebral abnormality.
  • It can be found at all vertebral levels.
  • While it can be acquired in younger animals, it is most often found in middle-aged to older dogs and cats.
  • Debate continues as to its clinical significance in animals with vertebral pain.
  • While often this bony change does not cause obvious clinical disease, if the proliferative bone extends dorsally and laterally to compress exiting peripheral nerves, pain and limb dysfunction may result.
  • Osteophyte formation ventral +/- complete ventral bridging of adjacent caudal thoracic and lumbar vertebrae -> possible interference with spinal nerves as they leave their foramina.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Levine G J, Levine J M, Walker M A, Pool R R & Fosgate G T (2006) Evaluation of the association between spondylosis deformans and clinical signs of intervertebral disk disease in dogs: 172 cases (1999-2000). JAVMA 228 (1), 96-100 PubMed.
  • Bagley R S & Tucker R L (1996) Specialty Board Review, Neuroradiology. Prog Vet Neuro 7, 62.
  • Goldman A L (1992) Hypervitaminosis A in a cat. JAVMA 200 (12), 1970-2 PubMed.
  • Morgan J P, Hansson K & Miyabayashi T (1989) Spondylosis deformans in the female beagle dog - A radiographic study. JSAP 30 (8), 457-60 VetMedResource.
  • Wright J A (1980) Spondylosis deformans of the lumbo-sacral joint in dogs. JSAP 21 (1), 45-58 PubMed.
  • Morgan J P, Ljunggren G & Read R (1967) Spondylosis deformans (vertebral osteophytosis) in the dog. A radiographic study from England, Sweden and USA. JSAP (2), 57-66 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Morgan J P & Biery D N (1985)Spondylosis deformans.In:Textbook of Small Animal OrthopaedicsEds C D Newton & D M Nunamaker. Philadelphia: J P Lippincott, pp 733.
  • Oliver and Lorenz (1983)Handbook of Veterinary Neurologic Diagnosis.Philadelphia: W B Saunders. pp 169.
  • Morgan J P (1967)Spondylosis deformans in the dog. A morphologic study with some clinical and experimental observations.Acta Orthop Scandpp 7-87.


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