Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Spine: neoplasia

Synonym(s): Vertebral tumor

Contributor(s): Rodney Bagley, Simon Platt

Introduction

  • Origin: Spinal neoplasia can be either: primary, result from extension of a neoplastic process into the spinal canal or can occur through metastasis of tumor from a distant location.
  • Classification: Tumors involving spine and spinal cord can be classified as to location of tumor relative to dura and spinal cord parenchyma. They can arise in extradural, intradural/extramedullary or intramedullary spaces.
  • Extradural tumors: Most common and include primary and secondary bone tumors (osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, chondrosarcoma), hemangiosarcoma, various carcinomas, multiple myeloma and other plasma cell tumors and lipomas, liposarcomas and lymphosarcomas. Epidural lymphosarcoma is a common spinal tumor in cats.
  • Tumors arising in the intradural but extramedullary location: Include nerve sheath tumors and meningiomas.
  • Tumors arising within the spinal cord parenchyma: Include astrocytomas, ependymomas and oligodendrogliomas.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • Spinal neoplasia can:
    • Be primary.
    • Result from extension of a neoplastic process into spinal canal.
    • Occur through metastasis of tumor from a distant location. Cell of origin will determine tumor type.
  • Extradural tumors are most common and include:
  • Epidural lymphosarcoma is a common spinal tumor in cats.
  • Tumors arising in the intradural but extramedullary location include:
  • Tumors arising within the spinal cord parenchyma Spine: neoplasia: parenchymal lesion include:

Timecourse

  • Clinical signs of a spinal tumor may occur acutely or be prolonged over weeks to months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Levy M S, Kapatkin A S, Patnaik A K, Mauldin G N & Mauldin G E (1997) Spinal tumors in 37 dogs: Clinical outcome and long-term survival (1987-1994). JAAHA 33 (4), 307-312 PubMed.
  • Brehm D M, Vite C H, Steinberg H S, Haviland J & van Winkle T (1995) A retrospective evaluation of 51 cases of peripheral nerve sheath tumors in the dog. JAAHA 31 (4), 349-359 PubMed.
  • McCarthy R J, Feeney D A & Lipowitz A J (1993) Preoperative diagnosis of tumors of the brachial plexus by use of computed tomography in three dogs. JAVMA 202 (2), 291-294 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • DeLahunta A (1983)Veterinary Neuroanatomy and Clinical Neurology.2nd edn. Philadelphia: W B Saunders.


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