Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Skin: deep folliculitis and furunculosis

Contributor(s): Rosanna Marsella, David Scarff

Introduction

  • Cause: follicular infection that breaks through hair follicle → furunculosis.
  • Begins as surface or follicular infection (bacterial, fungal or parasitic).
  • Signs: vary from discrete papular lesions to poorly demarcated areas of alopecia, tissue swelling and inflammation.
  • Certain types clinically distinctive entities, eg canine acne Skin: canine 'acne' , pododermatitis and furunculosis Skin: pododermatitis and furunculosis , idiopathic furunculosis of German Shepherd Dog Skin: 'idiopathic' furunculosis (German Shepherd Dog) , pyotraumatic folliculitis Skin: pyotraumatic folliculitis , callus dermatitis.
  • Diagnosis: signs, histopathology.
  • Treatment: antibiotics.
  • Prognosis: good with treatment.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General
  • Hypersensitivity.
  • Ectoparasites Skin: parasitic disease - overview.
  • Endocrine/metabolic disease.
  • Immunologic incompetency, eg neoplasia.
  • Poor nutrition.
  • Unhygienic environment.
  • Anatomical factors, eg facial, lip, tail, vulvar and body folds.
  • Environmental factors, eg high temperature and humidity.
  • External trauma.
  • Viral infection.
  • Idiopathic keratinization defects.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • Continuation of superficial pyoderma deeper into follicles → rupture of follicular wall → pyogranulomatous perifolliculitis or furunculosis in dermis and subcutis → extension along tissue planes → fistulae on surface or cellulitis and panniculitis in subcutaneous and fatty tissues.
  • Consequentially, the dual problems of infection and foreign body granulomas co-exist.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Scott D W et al (1998) Efficacy of clindamycin hydrochloride capsules for the treatment of deep pyoderma due to Staphyloccus intermedius infection in dogs. Can Vet J 39 (12), 753-756 PubMed.
  • Krick S A & Scott D W (1989) Bacterial folliculitis, furunculosis and cellulitis in the German Shepherd dog - a retrospective analysis of 17 cases. JAAHA 25 (1), 23-30 VetMedResource.


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