ISSN 2398-2969      

Skin: alopecia X

icanis

Synonym(s): Adult onset growth hormon deficiency; adrenal sex hormone imbalance; hyposomatotropism in the mature dog; pseudocushings syndrome; congenital adrenal hyperplasia-like syndrome; castration responsive dermatosis


Introduction

  • Rare dermatosis, probably identified as 'growth hormone-responsive dermatosis' in the past. Also known as Adrenal sex hormone imbalance. However is now common in certain breeds, eg Pomeranians in the US.
  • Cause: unknown.
  • Signs: bilaterally symmetrical truncal alopecia often with hyperpigmentation of the skin.
  • Diagnosis: signs, histopathology, ruling out other endocrine diseases such as hypothyroidism and hypercortosolemia.
  • Treatment: neutering, if intact. Chemotherapy options include melatonin - mitotane, trilostane, or benign neglect.
  • Prognosis: good for health since this is a cosmetic disease but poor for permanent hair regrowth.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Etiology is unknown.
  • Current research is focusing on genetics and hair follicle receptors.
  • It is likely that there is an inhibition of anagen initiation or prolongation which could be multifactorial.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Breed.

Pathophysiology

  • Poorly understood condition, etiology and pathogenesis not known.
  • Hormonal alterations reported could be normal for those breeds and may not reflect pathophysiology of the disease.
  • May be hair cycle arrest causing alopecia which coincidentally responds to GH supplementation. GH is a known stimulator of anagen.
  • The presence of mild hyperadrenocorticism might explain response to mitotane in some cases although response to mitotane does not generally correlate with cortisol concentrations.

Timecourse

  • Months to years.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Frank L A, Donnell R L, Kania S A (2006) Oestrogen receptor evaluation in Pomeranian dogs with hair cycle arrest (Alopecia X) on melatonin supplementation. Vet Dermatol 17 (4), 252-258 PubMed.
  • Frank L A (2005) Growth hormone-responsive alopecia in dogs. JAVMA 226 (9), 1494-1497 PubMed.
  • Shibata K, Koie H, Nagata M (2005) Clinicopathologic and morphologic analysis of the adrenal gland in Pomeranians with non-illness alopecia. Jap J Vet Dermatol 11 (3), 115-120 J-STAGE.
  • Cerundolo R, Lloyd D H, Persechino A, Evans H, Cauvin A (2004) Treatment of canine Alopecia X with trilostane. Vet Dermatol 15 (5), 285-293 PubMed.
  • Frank L A, Hnilica K A, Oliver J W (2004) Adrenal steroid hormone concentrations in dogs with hair cycle arrest (Alopecia X) before and during treatment with melatonin and mitotane. Vet Dermatol 15 (5), 278-284 PubMed.
  • Frank L A, Hnilica K A, Rohrbach B W, Oliver J W (2003) Retrospective evaluation of sex hormones and steroid hormone intermediates in dogs with alopecia. Vet Dermatol 14 (12), 91-97 PubMed.
  • Takada K, Kitamura H, Takiguchi M, Saito M, Hashimoto A (2002) Cloning of canine 21-hydroxylase gene and its polymorphic analysis as a candidate gene for congenital adrenal hyperplasia-like syndrome in Pomeranians. Res Vet Sci 73 (2), 159-163 PubMed.
  • Rijnberk A, Van Herpen H, Mol J A & Rutteman G R (1993) Disturbed release of growth hormone in mature dogs; a comparison with congenital GH deficiency. Vet Rec 133 (22), 542-545 PubMed.
  • Schmeitzel L P (1990) Sex hormone-related and growth hormone-related alopecias. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 20 (6), 1579-1601 PubMed.
  • Schmeitzel L P & Lothrop C D (1990) Hormonal abnormalities in Pomeranians with growth hormone responsive dermatosis. JAVMA 197 (10), 1333-1341 PubMed.
  • Lothrop C D Jr. (1988) Pathophysiology of canine growth hormone responsive alopecia. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 10 (12), 1346-1349 VetMedResource.
  • Scott D W & Walton D K (1986) Hyposomatotropism in the mature dog; a discussion of 22 cases. JAAHA 22 (4), 467-473 Eureka Mag.

Other sources of information

  • Frank L A (2009)Canine alopecia X.In:Hair Loss Disorders in Domestic Animals. L Mechlenburg, M Linek, DJ Tobin, eds.Wiley-Blackwell: Ames, Iowa, p. 148-155.
  • Schmeizel L Pet al(1995)Congenital adrenal hyperplasia-like syndrome.In:Current Veterinary Therapy XII. Eds: Bonagura J D & Kirk R W. Philadelphia: W B Saunders Co.
  • Schmeizel L P & Parker W (1993)Growth hormone and sex hormone alopecia.In:Advances in Veterinary Dermatology - Volume 2.New York: Pergamon Press. Eds: Ihrke P Jet al. pp 451.
  • Rosenkrantz W M and Griffin C E (1992)Lysodren therapy in suspect adrenal sex hormone dermatosis.Proceedings World Congress Veterinary Dermatology2, 121.
  • Rosser E J (1989)Castration responsive dermatosis in the dog.In:Advances in Veterinary Dermatology, Volume 1. Eds: von Tscharner C & Halliwell R E W. London: Bailliere Tindall.
  • Rosser E J (1987)Growth hormone-responsive dermatosis versus castration responsive dermatosis.Derm Dialogue.
  • Baker K (1986)Hormonal alopecia in dogs and cats.In Pract8(2), 71-78.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!