Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Shoulder: osteochondrosis

Synonym(s): OCD

Contributor(s): Joseph Harari

Introduction

  • See also osteochondrosis Osteochondrosis.
  • Generally involves articular cartilage of medial aspect of caudal third of humeral head (caudal rim of glenoid - rarely).
  • Bilateral - more than 50% clinical cases.
  • Signs: mild to moderate, weightbearing lameness between 4-7 months of age, deteriorates with exercise.
  • Diagnosis: signs, radiography.
  • Treatment: surgical treatment indicated if 4 weeks conservative treatment fails.
  • Prognosis: majority of cases respond well to surgery - sound within 6-8 weeks.
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Pathogenesis

Etiology

Pathophysiology

  • Generally involves articular cartilage of medial aspect of caudal third of humeral head (uncommonly - caudal rim of glenoid).
  • Underrun cartilage may split vertically causing flap formation = osteochondritis dissecans (OCD).
  • Flattened subchondral bone seen radiographically.
  • Flap may break free = 'joint mouse':
    • Can absorb nutrients from synovial fluid, grow in size, possibly mineralize.
    • Attaches to synovium (remains in situ).
    • Migrates into bicipital tendon sheath (tenosynovitis).
  • Once flap detached, defect may fill with granulation tissue, then converted into fibrocartilage - signs usually abate.
  • Secondary degenerative joint disease (DJD) (osteophyte formation on caudal borders of glenoid and/or humeral head) develops in chronic case.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Johnston S A (1998) Osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral head. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 28 (1), 33-49 PubMed.


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