Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Sesamoid: fracture

Contributor(s): Michael Guilliard

Introduction

  • Cause: trauma.
  • Signs: acute onset lameness with soft tissue swelling and pain around sesamoid bones.
  • Reduced range of movement of metacarpo/metatarso-phalangeal joints.
  • Pain and crepitus on flexion and extension of the affected joint.
  • Diagnosis: history, signs, radiography.
  • Treatment: conservative support dressings adequate for pet dog; surgical removal of fractured sesamoid is usual in sporting dogs.
  • Prognosis: good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Sesamoid bone fractures due to direct trauma or mechanical overload.

Pathophysiology

  • Acute trauma.
  • Configuration may be slab, mid-body, sagittal or chip fractures.
  • Sesamoid bones 2 and 7 more prone to injury as the flexor tendons lie centrally between the paired sesamoid bones in digits 3 and 4 but are offset in digits 2 and 5 to exert more pressure on sesamoids 2 and 7.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Davis P E et al (1969) Fractures of the seasmoid bones in the greyhound. Aust Vet J 45 (1), 15-9 PubMed.
  • Bateman J K et al (1959) Fractured sesamoids in the greyhound. Vet Rec 71, 101.

Other sources of information

  • Robins G M & Read R A (1998)diseases of the sesamoid bones.In:Canine Sports Medicine and Surgery.Bloomberg M S, Dee J F & Taylor R A (eds). W B Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp 255-264.
  • Eaton-Wells R (1994)The digits.In:Manual of small animal arthrology.Chapter 14 pp 237. BSAVA.
  • Robins G M & Read R A (1993)diseases of the sesamoid bones.In:Disease mechanisms in small animal surgery.2nd edn. pp 1094.


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