Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Perianal fistula

Synonym(s): Perianal furunculosis, Perianal fistulation, Anal furunculosis

Contributor(s): Kyle Mathews, David Scarff

Introduction

  • Breed specific: German Shepherd Dog and GSD crosses are most commonly affected.
  • Cause: likely immune-mediated component, co-existing diseases include colitis, atopic skin and ear disease.
  • Signs: infiltrating sinus tracts leading from perianal skin.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs.
  • Treatment: various, immunosuppression, antibiotic therapy, surgery, steroids.
  • Prognosis: recurrence is likely.
    Print off the owner factsheet on Anal furunculosis (perianal fistula) to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Uncertain, but likely immune-mediated component.

Predisposing factors

General
  • German Shepherd Dog breed.
  • Anal sac disease Anal sac impaction.
  • Low tail carriage.
  • Poor perianal hygiene.

Pathophysiology

  • Unknown.
  • Likely immune-mediated component with resolution/improvement on immunosuppressive drugs.
  • Likely genetic component as GSD primarily affected.
  • Low tail carriage and poor perianal hygiene may predispose to superficial inflammation with subsequent extension into deeper tissues.
  • However other breeds with low tail carriage are not affected.

Timecourse

  • Months to years.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hardie R J, Gregory S P, Tomlin J, Sturgeon C, Lipscomb V & Ladlow J (2005) Cyclosporine treatment of anal furunculosis in 26 dogs. JSAP 46 (1), 3-9 PubMed.
  • Doust R, Griffiths L G & Sullivan M (2003) Evaluation of once daily treatment with cyclosporine for anal furunculosis in dogs. Vet Rec 152 (8), 225-229 PubMed.
  • Mouatt J G (2002) Cyclosporin and ketonazole interaction for treatment of perianal fistulas in the dog. Aust Vet J 80 (4), 207-211 PubMed.
  • Patricelli A J, Hardie R J & McAnulty J E (2002) Cyclosporine and ketonazole for the treatment of perianal fistulas in dogs. JAVMA 220 (7), 1009-1016 PubMed.
  • Griffiths L G et al (1999) Cyclosporin as the sole treatment for anal furunculosis - preliminary results. JSAP 40 (12), 569-572 PubMed.
  • Mathews K A & Sukhiani R S (1997) Randomized controlled trial of cyclosporine for treatment of perianal fistulas in dogs. JAVMA 211 (10), 1249-1253 PubMed.
  • Harkin K R, Walshaw R & Mullaney T P (1996) Association of perianal fistula and colitis in the German Shepherd Dog - response to high-dose prednisone and dietary therapy. JAAHA 32 (6), 515-520 PubMed.
  • Ellison G W, Bellah J R, Stubbs W P & VanGilder J (1995) Treatment of perianal fistulas with ND-YAG laser - results in twenty cases. Vet Surg 24 (2), 140-147 PubMed.
  • Day M J (1993) Immunopathology of anal furunculosis in the dog. JSAP 34 (8), 381-389 VetMedResource.
  • Day M J & Weaver B M Q (1992) Pathology of surgically resected tissue from 305 cases of anal furunculosis in the dog. JSAP 33 (12), 583-589 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Matthews K A & Sukhiami R S (1996)OL27-400 (cyclosporin) treatment of canine perianal fistulas.Proc Am Coll Vet Surg31, 14.


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