Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Panosteitis

Contributor(s):

Introduction

  • Self-limiting disease affecting the long, tubular bones.
  • Cause: ?hereditary factors, large, rapidly growing young dogs.
  • Signs: sudden onset, severe lameness in one or more limbs.
  • Sequential progression of lameness to the other long bones.
  • Pain on direct palpation of affected bones.
  • Diagnosis: signs, radiography.
  • Treatment: analgesia, usually self-limiting.
  • Prognosis: good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.
  • Hereditary factor suspected due to the breed incidence seen in clinical cases, predominantly German Shepherd dogs German Shepherd Dog.
  • Other possibilities include transient vascular abnormalities, metabolic abnormalities, parasitic migration, stress, viral or bacterial disease and auto-immune disease.

Pathophysiology

  • Destruction and subsequent loss of adipose marrow cells initiates a standard repair response in the bone.
  • Endosteal callus of fracture repair and response of marrow adipose tissue to physical and mechanical damage show the same tissue reactions.
  • Primarily a disease of the fatty bone marrow with secondary effects on the bone.
  • Histologically eosinophilic, granular degeneration of the medullary adipocytes, initially around the nutrient foramen.
  • Proliferation of osteoblasts and fibroblasts lining the vascular sinusoids of the medullary cavity.
  • New osteoid matrix produced by intramembranous ossification forms nidus for calcification within the medullary cavity.
  • Marrow cavity becomes replaced by fibrous connective tissue containing metaplastic bone.
  • Vascular congestion leads to secondary endosteal and periosteal new bone formation.
  • New bone is gradually resorbed over 60-90 days and marrow differentiates back into fatty bone marrow.

Timecourse

  • Age of onset clinical signs 6-18 months.
  • Pain lasts for few days then resolves and recurs in the same or another bone with intervals of between 1 week and 8 months between bouts.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Linkenheil R K (1982) Panosteitis, with coalescing radiodensities in the medullary cavity of the distal one third of the left humerus and bilateral ununited anconeal processes caudal and distal to the humeral condyle​. JAVMA 180 (2), 181-182 PubMed.
  • Böhning R J Jr et al (1970) Clinical and radiologic survey of canine panosteitis​. JAVMA 156 (7), 870-883 PubMed.


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