ISSN 2398-2969      

Osteochondrosis

icanis
Contributor(s):

Joseph Harari

Synonym(s): OCD


Introduction

  • Abnormal development/differentiation of growth cartilage in both physis and epiphysis.
  • Primarily cartilage lesion, although term implies changes in both bone and cartilage.
  • Cause: failure of endochondral ossification.
  • Signs: lameness.
  • Diagnosis: signs, signalment, radiography.
  • Treatment: may be limiting. Usually surgical excision of affected cartilage.
  • Prognosis: varies with joint affected but often → osteoarthrosis.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Failure of chondrocytes to mature.

Factors influencing growth rate and endochondral ossification

  • Diet: in young animals (especially if fed ad-lib). Various combinations of:
    • High energy (primarily).
    • High protein (less critical).
    • Excessive calcium (less critical).
    • Phosphorus (less critical).
    • Vitamin D (less critical).
  • Heredity: unknown significance, although condition seen primarily in large breeds.
  • Endocrine: somatropin and thyrotropin have been implicated. Greater incidence in males which may grow faster.

Other factors

  • Micro-trauma: may be significant. Site of lesion in individual joint is related to weight-bearing distribution in that joint. Inability of diseased cartilage to withstand normal trauma.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Fast growth.

Pathophysiology

  • Areas of necrosis in cartilage.
  • Cartilage thickened due to accumulation of transitional chondrocytes with failure of vascular penetration.
  • Endochondral ossification does not take place. Horizontal clefts exist between normal cartilage and abnormal vertical clefts break through to surface → flaps.
  • OCD flaps separate along normal/abnormal junction → may become detached → nourished by synovial fluid → grow and calcify.
  • Joint mice may become trapped → lameness.

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Morgan J P, Wind A & Davidson A P (1999) Bone dysplasias in the labrador retriever - radiographic study. JAAHA 35 (4), 332-340 PubMed.
  • Harari J (1998) Osteochondrosis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 28 (1), 1-195 VetMedResource.

Related Images

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!