Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Myositis ossificans

Synonym(s): Ossifying myopathy

Contributor(s): Kyle Braund, Laurent Garosi

Introduction

  • Heterotopic ossification in soft tissue/muscle adjacent to bone/periosteum. Localized and generalized forms have been reported.
  • Cause: unknown.
  • Signs: weakness/lameness of affected limb; monoparesis/monoplegia.
  • Treatment: surgical excision.
  • Prognosis: guarded - complete excision often difficult.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Generally unknown.
  • The most widely accepted cause is trauma that arises from either intense exercise, direct trauma or intramuscular injections, with consequent development of ossifying hematoma and metaplasia of muscle and connective tissue to cartilage and bone.
  • Only 40-60% of affected animals have a history of significant acute or blunt trauma.
  • May be considered as a separate netity in Dobermann Pinschers (von Willebrand heterotopic osteoncondrofibrosis in Dobermann Pinschers Dobermann ).

Predisposing factors

General
  • Trauma may be associated with localized, ossifying myopathy but it is not a prerequisite.

Pathophysiology

  • Heterotopic ossification of soft tissue adjacent to bone/periosteum.
  • Generalized myositis ossificans results in excessive fibrous connective tissue development causing widespread muscle degeneration and dystrophic calcification and ossification.
  • 'Tumorous' lesion within muscle → weakness/lameness in affected leg.
  • Nerve involvement within pelvis or around hip joint may → monoparesis/monoplegia.
  • In Dobermann Pinschers, the combination of bleeding tendencies associated with von Willebrand disease Von Willebrand's disease and trauma could result in microvascular bleeding with subsequent fibrosis or mineralization.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Tambella A M, Palumbo Piccionello A, Dini F, Vullo C, Rossi G, Scrollavezza P (2013) Myositis ossificans circumscripta of the triceps muscle in a Rottweiler dog. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 26 (2), 154-159 PubMed.
  • Vilar J M, Ramirez G, Spinella G, Martinez A (2010) Kinematic characteristics of myositis ossificans of the semimembranosus muscle in a dog. Can Vet J 51 (3), 289-292 PubMed.
  • Dillon E A (1988) Traumatic myositis ossificans in a dog. N Z Vet J 36 (3), 152-153 PubMed.
  • Liu S K & Dorfman H D (1976) A condition resembling human localized myositis ossificans in two dogs. J Small Anim Pract 17 (6), 371-377 PubMed.


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