Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Metaphyseal osteopathy

Synonym(s): Hypertrophic osteodystrophyBarlow's diseaseIdiopathic osteodystrophySkeletal scurvy

Contributor(s): Kyle Braund

Introduction

  • Variable degree lameness in large breed, rapidly growing dogs.
  • Distal radius, ulna and tibia most common site.
  • Signs: swelling of and pain on palpation of the metaphysis of long bones.
  • Systemic signs associated with pyrexia, lethargy and anorexia.
  • Residual skeletal deformities may occur.
  • Diagnosis: signs, radiography.
  • Treatment: analgesia, supportive care.
  • Prognosis: generally good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown, many theories:
    • First thought secondary to vitamin C deficiency or transient derangement of vitamin C metabolism, since been discounted.
    • Over-nutrition causing raised calcitonin levels.
    • Bacteria have been isolated from metaphysis in some cases.
    • Recently, distemper virus isolated from the metaphyseal bone cells in some affected dogs.

Pathophysiology

  • Inflammation of the metaphyseal bone.
  • Inflammation of metaphyseal area of long bones.
  • Hemolytic necrosis of bone, trabecular microfractures, disrupted trabeculae and fibrosis.
  • Progresses to periosteal new bone formation, sometimes outside the periosteum.
  • New bone may asymetrically bridge the physis, leading to residual skeletal deformities, eg genu valgum, cow hocks, carpal valgus.

Timecourse

  • Presents at 3-4 months old.
  • Generally resolves at skeletal maturity.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Abeles V, Harrus S, Angles J M et al (1999) Hypertrophic osteodystrophy in six Weimeraner puppies associated with systemic signs. Vet Rec 145 (5), 130-134 PubMed.
  • Munjar T A et al (1998) Comparison of risk factors for hypertrophic osteodystrophy, craniomandibular osteopathy and canine distemper virus infection. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 11 (1), 37-43 VetMedResource.
  • Dunn J K et al (1992) Successful treatment of two cases of metaphyseal osteomyelitis in the dog. JSAP 33 (2), 85-89 VetMedResource.
  • Lewis D D et al (1992) Diagnosis of common developmental orthopedic conditions in canine pediatric patients. Comp Cont Ed 14 (3), 287-301 VetMedResource.


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