ISSN 2398-2969      

Malabsorption

icanis

Introduction

  • Poor absorption of nutrients from small intestine.
  • Cause: altered intestinal mucosal or lymphatic function.
  • Signs: chronic diarrhea, weight loss, vomiting, polyphagia or anorexia.
  • Diagnosis: history, physical examination, laboratory tests, abdominal ultrasound, intestinal histopathology.
  • Treatment: dependent on underlying cause.
  • Prognosis: can be guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Mucosal damage often due to inflammatory or neoplastic response.
  • Multiple causes of inflammation including:
    • Parasitic.
    • Bacterial.
    • Dietary.
    • Hypersensitivity
    • Infectious agents.
    • Most cases idiopathic.
  • Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL), resulting in dilated and ruptured lacteals and loss of protein rich lymph into the intestinal lumen.
  • Multiple cases of IL including:

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • Reduced nutrient absorption due to:
    • Villous atrophy Intestine: villus atrophy → decreased surface area → decreased absorptive capacity.
    • Mucosal damage → loss of mucosal integrity → increased intestinal permeability.
    • Mucosal damage → loss of brush border enzymes → decreased digestion and absorption. 
    • Infiltration of lamina propria with inflammatory or neoplastic cells → reduced absorption and altered motility.
    • Lymphangiectasia → malabsorption of lipoproteins and fats due to defective lacteal function.

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Toresson L, Steiner J M, Suchodolski J S, Spillmann T (2016) Oral cobalamin supplementation in dogs with chronic enteropathies and hypocobalaminemia. JVIM 30 (1), 101-107 PubMed.
  • Allenspach K (2013) Diagnosis of small intestinal disorders in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 43 (6), 1227-1240 PubMed.
  • Dossin O, Lavoué R (2011) Protein-losing enteropathies in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 41 (2), 399-418 PubMed.
  • Hall E J (2011) Antibiotic-responsive diarrhea in small animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 41 (2), 273-286 PubMed.
  • Simpson K W, Jergens A E (2011) Pitfalls and progress in the diagnosis and management of canine inflammatory bowel disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 41 (2), 381-398 PubMed.

Related Images

RELATED ARTICLES

Abdominocentesis

ACTH stimulation test

Adenoma / adenocarcinoma

Anorexia

Antibiotic-responsive diarrhea (ARD)

Anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning

Ascaridosis

Blood biochemistry: albumin

Blood biochemistry: bile acids

Blood biochemistry: cholesterol

Blood biochemistry: cortisol

Blood biochemistry: folate

Blood biochemistry: total globulin

Blood biochemistry: trypsin-like immunoreactivity

Blood biochemistry: vitamin B12

Brush border membrane disease

Campylobacter jejuni

Canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) test

Canine parvovirus

Ciclosporin

Congenital panhypopituitarism

Coprophagia

Cryptosporidium spp

Diarrhea: chronic

Diarrhea: due to systemic illness

Dietetic diet: maldigestion (and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency)

Diseases of the lymphatic vessels

Energy deficiency

Enteritis: eosinophilic

Enteritis: lymphocytic plasmacytic

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency

Fecal analysis: parasites

Fenbendazole

German Shepherd Dog

Giardiasis

Gluten-sensitive enteropathy

Heart: congestive heart failure

Hematology: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)

Hematology: prothrombin time

Histoplasmosis

Hypoadrenocorticism

Hypoproteinemia

Inflammatory bowel disease: overview

Intestine: villus atrophy

Intussusception

Large intestine: neoplasia

Leukemia

Lymphoma

Maldigestion

Maropitant citrate

Omeprazole

Pancreatitis: chronic

Parvovirus disease associated with CPV-1

Primary hypoparathyroidism

Protein-losing enteropathy

Pythiosis

Salmonella spp

Salmonellosis

Small intestine: neoplasia

Sucralfate

Ultrasonography: GI system

Urinalysis: protein

Vitamin B12

Vitamin D

Vomiting

Yorkshire Terrier

Want more related items, why not
contact us

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code