ISSN 2398-2969      

Kidney: ischemia

icanis

Synonym(s): Renal ischaemia


Introduction

  • Cause: multiple potential events that can lead to renal ischemia.
  • Signs: shock, hyperthermia/hypothermia.
  • Diagnosis: depends on underlying cause.
  • Treatment: treat underlying cause.
  • Prognosis: acute renal failure if renal ischemia not corrected quickly.
  • See also renal failure Kidney: acute kidney injury (AKI).

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Pathophysiology

  • Sudden impairment of renal blood supply → renal ischemia  →  decreased intracellular ATP (due to mitochondrial dysfunction)  →  decreased function of Na-K and Na-Ca ATP-ase pumps  →  increased intracellular Na and Ca  →  increased intracellular osmotic pressure  →  swelling of tubular cells and sludging and aggregation in renal blood vessels  →  further decrease in renal blood flow. 
  • Renal ischemia  →  increase in oxygen free radical formation  →  further damage cell membranes (eg through lipid peroxidation). 
  • Self-perpetuating secondary injuries during reperfusion injury. 
  • Severe damage to the renal cells  →  acute renal failure and/or chronic changes with fibrosis increasing risk for chronic renal failure.

Timecourse

  • Acute but can progress to chronic kidney disease.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Zahran H, Barakat N, Khater S et al (2019) Renoprotective effect of local sildenafil administration in renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury: A randomised controlled canine study. Arab J Urol 17(2), 150-159 PubMed.   
  • Lee G, Jeon S, Lee S K et al (2017) Quantitative evaluation of renal parenchymal perfusion using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in dogs. J Vet Sci 18(4),507-514 PubMed.    
  • Davis J, Raisis A L, Cianciolo R E et al (2016) Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentration changes after acute haemorrhage and colloid-mediated reperfusion in anaesthetized dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 43(3), 262-270 PubMed.
  • Keir I, Kellum J A (2015) Acute kidney injury in severe sepsis: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment recommendations. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 25(2), 200-209 PubMed.
  • Dong Y, Wang W, Cao J et al (2013) Quantitative evaluation of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the diagnosis of chronic ischemic renal disease in a dog model. PLoS One 8(8), e70337 PubMed.    
  • Lee J I, Son H Y, Kim M C (2006) Attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury by ascorbic acid in the canine renal transplantation. J Vet Sci 7(4), 375-379 PubMed.  
  • Lee J I, Kim M J, Park C S et al (2006) Influence of ascorbic acid on BUN, creatinine, resistive index in canine renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Vet Sci 7(1), 79-81 PubMed.  
  • Cylwik B et al (1985) Histological and biochemical changes in the dog kidney after renal artery embolization with Spongostan. Int Urol Nephrol 17 (3), 203-210 SpringerLink.
  • Lalli A F et al (1973) Selective canine renal infarction. Cleve Clin Q 40 (2), 75-77 PubMed.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!