Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Immunology: selective IgA deficiency

Contributor(s): Ansar Ahmed, Michael Day, Richard Squires

Introduction

  • Inherited immunodeficiency disease.
  • Common in people, probably under diagnosed in dogs.
  • Cause: decreased or absent serum IgA levels, may be low secretory IgA levels on mucosal surfaces.
  • Signs: increased incidence of infections involving mucosal surfaces.
  • Clinically normal animals can be found despite low IgA levels.
  • Diagnosis: signs, measurement of IgA.
  • Treatment: symptomatic treatment of infections.
  • Prognosis: usually not life threatening.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • A defect in maturation and differentiation of the IgA B cell.
  • Dogs have a defect in the maturation of terminal differentation of IgA B cells into IgA plasma cells.
  • Dogs have low concentrations of serum IgA, but normal concentrations of serum IgG and IgM.
  • T cell function also appears to be normal.
  • Dogs may have auto-antibodies, eg ANA Anti-nuclear antibody.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Day M J (1996) Inheritance of serum autoantibody, reduced serum IgA and autoimmune disease in a canine breeding colony. Vet Immunol and Immunopathol 53 (3-4), 207-219 PubMed.
  • Day M J (1996) Low IgA concentration in the tears of German Shepherd Dogs. Aust Vet J 74 (6), 433-434 PubMed.
  • Day M J & Penhale W J (1988) Serum IgA concentrations in normal and diseased dogs. Res Vet Sci 45 (3), 360-363 PubMed.
  • Felsberg, P J et al (1987) Clinical, immunologic and epidemiologic characteristics of canine selective Ig A deficiency. Adv Exp Med Biol 216B, 1461-70 PubMed.
  • Felsberg P J et al (1985) Selective Ig A deficiency in the dog. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 36 (3), 297-305 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Felsberg, P J (1992)Primary immunodeficiencies.In:Current Veterinary Therapy XI: Small Animal Practice. Eds: Kirk R W & Bonagura J D. Philadelphia: W B Saunders. pp 448-453.


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