ISSN 2398-2969      

Hygroma (hydroma)

icanis
Contributor(s):

Joseph Harari


Introduction

  • Cause: develop over pressure points due to repeat trauma.
  • Commonly seen in large/giant breeds over point of olecranon in the elbow.
  • Signs: soft, fluid-filled subcutaneous swelling over bony prominences.
  • Diagnosis: signs, history, biopsy.
  • Treatment: conservative, occasionally surgical resection required.
  • Prognosis: generally good, although rarely resolves spontaneously.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Protective response to pressure induced ischemia, necrosis and inflammation.
  • May develop with other concurrent orthopedic problems secondarily to increased trauma if difficulty laying down.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Large or giant breeds with higher bodyweight.
  • Environmental factors, ie sleeping on cement, wood or brick.
  • Concurrent orthopedic problems resulting in stiffness rising and lying down.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • Repeat mild trauma over bony prominences.
  • Hygromas develop after repeat trauma-induced necrosis and inflammation over pressure points.
  • Known as a false or aquired bursae.
  • Histologically characterized by cystic spaces surrounded by dense walls of granulation tissue, the inner layer consisting of a dense layer of fibroblasts.
  • Initially soft, fluid-filled swellings, may become abscesses or granulomas - especially if secondarily infected.

Timecourse

  • Chronic disease with insidious onset.
  • Months to years.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Strother S V & Jones P G (1985) Treatment of canine cystic hygroma. JAVMA 187 (8), 794 PubMed.
  • Johnston D E (1975) Hygroma of the elbow in dogs. JAVMA 167 (3), 213-9 PubMed.
  • Newton C D et al (1974) Surgical closures of elbow hygromas in the dog. JAVMA 164 (2), 147-9 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Pope E R (1998)Surgical treatment of hygroma of the elbow.In:Current techniques in small animal surgery.4th edn. Bojrab. pp 622.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!