ISSN 2398-2969      

Esophagobronchial fistula

icanis
Contributor(s):

Introduction

  • Fistula involving esophagus and tracheobronchial tree (occasionally between esophagus and pleura or cervical tissues).
  • Rare.
  • Cause: congenital or acquired (esophageal foreign bodies resulting in transmural necrosis; neoplasia; necrosis of esophageal diverticulum; peri-esophageal inflammatory focus).
  • Signs: non-specific related to causal condition, disease often overlooked in first instance. As condition progresses - chronic cough, regurgitation, pyrexia, dyspnea, lethargy.
  • Diagnosis: history, clinical signs, radiography, esophagoscopy.
  • Treatment: surgical repair of fistula (with or without lobectomy of infected lung).
  • Prognosis: related to degree of respiratory involvement.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Pathophysiology

  • Congenital or acquired.
  • Transmural necrosis as a result of esophageal foreign body, necrosis of esophageal diverticulum, peri-esophageal inflammatory focus, or neoplasia.
  • Leads to fistula development between esophagus and tracheobrachial tree (pleura or cervical tissues - rarely).
  • Most commonly caused by esophageal foreign body → base of heart → chronic cough and respiratory disease ensue.
  • Transmural necrosis → to fistula formation between esophagus and tracheobronchial tree (occasionally pleura or cervical tissues).
  • Contamination of respiratory tract with esophageal contents.

Timecourse

  • Days.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

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