Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Elbow: traumatic luxation

Contributor(s): Neil Burton, Prof Walter Renberg

Introduction

  • Uncommon. Usually in dogs over 1 year of age.
  • Usually lateral luxation of the antebrachium.
  • Signs: carriage of limb in semi-flexion, distal limb abducted and supinated.
  • Treatment: relocation by closed reduction, or open reduction +/- reconstruction of damaged collateral ligament.
  • Prognosis: good, secondary osteoarthritis common sequela.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Trauma - lateral twisting of the antebrachium with the elbow flexed more than 45° (in extension luxation is prevented by the anconeal process engaging in the supratrochlear foramen).

Pathophysiology

  • Usually lateral antebrachial displacement because larger medial epicondyle of humerus prevents medial displacement.
  • Organization of the intra-articular hematoma that forms following luxation often occurs quickly. This may make delayed closed reduction difficult/impossible.
  • Collateral ligament damage may result in permanent elbow instability - requires reconstruction.
  • Osteoarthritic change Arthritis: osteoarthritis may occur as a long-term sequela.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers


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