Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Elbow: congenital luxation

Contributor(s): Prof Walter Renberg

Introduction

  • Uncommon - 15% of non-traumatic elbow lameness.
  • Cause: congenital developmental abnormality.
  • 2 types:
    • Severe disability: about 90° of outward rotation of proximal ulna; trochlear notch and anconeal process disarticulated from humerus; displacement of triceps tendon (divided radiographically into types II and III).
    • Disability not as severe proximal radius displaced caudally and laterally; normal relationship between humerus and ulna; proximal radial epiphysis may be deformed. Radiographic changes defined as type I.
  • Signs: lameness.
  • Diagnosis: radiography.
  • Treatment: closed reduction if possible, surgical if not.
  • Prognosis: worse when surgery required or in neglected cases.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Congenital developmental anomaly.

Pathophysiology

  • Unknown - ?failure of development of medial collateral and annular ligaments and hypertrophy of lateral collateral ligament allowing outward rotation of ulna to occur.
  • Changes seen may be secondary: a) Severe disability: 90° outward rotation of proximal ulna; removing trochlear notch and anconeal process from effective articulation with humerus; displacement of triceps tendon. b) Less severe disability: normal relationship between humerus and ulna; proximal radius displaced laterally and caudally.
  • Long-standing cases - articular surface of proximal radius deformed due to lack of contact with humerus.

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Komtebedde & Vasseur Elbow luxation. In: Textbook of Small Animal Surgery. 2nd edn. Philadelphia: W B Saunders & Co.


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