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Ear: otodectic mange

icanis

Synonym(s): Otodectes cynotis, parasitic otitis externa


Introduction

  • CauseOtodectes cynotis Otodectes cynotis - large, white, free-moving psoroptid mites which live on surface or epithelial lining of ear canal and occasionally skin elsewhere.
  • Signs: may initiate otitis externa but remain undetected.
  • Diagnosis: identification of mites, response to therapy.
  • Treatment: ear canal cleansing, otic ectoparasiticides.
  • Prognosis: excellent.
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Pathogenesis

Etiology

Pathophysiology

  • Infection with Otodectes cynotis → feed on lymph and blood within ear canal and occasionally on skin → exposure of host to Otodectes salivary antigens → type I and III hypersensitivities → ?mite colonization if immune response insufficient or prevention of colonization if greater immune response (?acquired immunity in older animals) → otitis externa Skin: otitis externa.

Epidemiology

  • Life cycle Lifecycle Otodectes cynotis - diagram completed in 3 weeks.
  • After 4 days eggs hatch → larvae 3-10 days → protonymphs 3-5 days → deutonymphs 3-5 days → attached to male → male or female adult → eggs if female.
  • Survives several weeks in environment.
  • Very mobile, thus both ears always affected.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Becskei C, Cuppens O & Mahibir S P (2018) Efficacy and safety of sarolaner in the treatment of canine ear mite infestation caused by Otodectes cynotis: a non-inferiority study. Vet Dermatol 29 (2), 100-e39 PubMed.
  • Six R H, Becskei C, Mazaleski M M et al (2016) Efficacy of sarolaner, a novel oral isoxazoline, against two common mite infestations in dogs: Demodex spp and Otodectes cynotis. Vet Parasitol 222, 62-66 PubMed.
  • Engelen M A C M (2000) Efficacy on non-acaricidal containing otic preparations in the treatment of otoacariasis in dogs and cats. Vet Rec 147 (20), 567-569 PubMed.
  • Paradis M (1998) Ivermectin in small animal dermatology Part II. Extralabel applicationsComp Cont Ed Prac Vet 20 (4), 459-469 VetMedResource.
  • Smith E K (1988) How to detect common skin mites through skin scrapingsVet Med 83 (2), 165-170 VetMedResource.
  • Powell M B, Weisbroth S H, Roth L & Wilhelmsen C (1980) Reaginic hypersensitivity in Otodectes cynotis infestation in cats and mode of mite feedingAm J Vet Res 41 (6), 877-82 PubMed.
  • Herwick P P (1978) Lesions caused by canine ear mitesArch Dermetol 114 (1), 130 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Muller G H, Griffin C E & Campbell K L (2013) Muller and Kirk's Small Animal Dermatology. 7th edn. Philadelphia: W B Saunders. pp 298-300 (Detailed dermatology textbook for in-depth reading).
  • Nuttall T, Harvey R G & McKeever P J (2009) Otitis externa. In: A Colour Handbook of Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 2nd edn. Manson Publishing. pp 254-265. 

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Ear disease in your dog

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