Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Distal tibia: angular deformity

Synonym(s): Hock: angular deformity

Contributor(s): Neil Burton

Introduction

  • Cause: injury to distal tibial growth plate can cause premature closure of all or part of growth plate and tibial shortening and/or angular deformity.
  • Uncommon injury (3% of all physeal trauma).
  • Injury to distal fibular growth plate may cause similar deformity owing to restraint on normal tibial growth.
  • Signs: lameness.
  • Diagnosis: clinical examination/CT/radiography.
  • Treatment: in skeletally immature dogs, surgical manipulation of residual growth potential of tibial growth plate may achieve significant angular correction.
  • Prognosis: commonly presented after growth plate closure, making surgical intervention less likely to be successful: osteotomy is treatment of choice.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Trauma.
  • Breed predisposition.

Pathophysiology

  • Tibial shortening and/or angular deviation due to premature closure (partial or complete) of distal tibial/fibular growth plate(s) following injury.
  • Idiopathic angular deformity resulting from asymmetrical closure of distal crural growth plate.
  • Distal tibial growth plate contributes 50% of tibial length.
  • Injury to growth plate may cause premature closure (partial or complete) and angular deformity or shortening of limb.
  • Injury and premature closure of fibular growth plate can cause limb deviation due to restraint on normal tibial growth.
  • Most common is premature closure of lateral aspect of distal tibial growth plate resulting in valgus deformity.
  • Asymmetrical closure without previous injury may cause angular (usually valgus) deformity.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Whittock W G (1990)Canine Orthopedics.2nd edn. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger. pp 800-801.


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