Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Diarrhea: due to diet

Introduction

  • Cause:
    • Sudden change in diet.
    • Ingestion of contaminated/inappropriately cooked food.
    • Low quality diet.
    • Overfeeding.
    • Dietary hypersensitivity may occur but difficult to diagnose definitively.
  • Signs: acute onset of watery diarrhea - dog often bright but may be dull/lethargic.
  • Diagnosis: history and signs, rule out other causes.
  • Treatment: often self limiting, or dietary attention may be required eg correct dietary restriction.
  • Prognosis: good with appropriate control.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Inability to digest/absorb food:
    • Sudden dietary change.
    • Scavenging.
    • Lactose intolerance.
    • Overfeeding.
    • Low digestibility diet.
    • Dietary allergy Skin: food hypersensitivity.
    • High fat, high protein, varied diet.
    • Cow's milk.
    • Proteins in beef and cereals.

Pathophysiology

  • Deficiency of brush border enzyme lactase → maldigestion of lactose → osmotic diarrhea.
  • Ingestion of toxins from spoiled food → intestinal inflammation and secretory diarrhea.
  • True food allergy mediated by antibody, immune complex or cell-mediated responses → intestinal inflammation + villus atrophy → maldigestion.
  • Food intolerance - deficiency of enzymes needed to digest intraluminal contents, eg lactase deficiency; pharmacological, metabolic or toxic reactions.
  • Presence of non-absorbable solutes, eg sorbitol.

Timecourse

  • Rapid, often within hours of ingestion.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers


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