ISSN 2398-2969      

Diabetes insipidus

icanis
Contributor(s):

David Bruyette

Synonym(s): DI


Introduction

  • Cause: absolute or relative deficiency of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH).
  • Two forms:
    • Hypothalamic-hypohyseal DI (HDDI).
    • Nephrogenic DI (NDI).
  • Signs:
    • Polyuria/polydipsia.
    • Urine: low SG/osmolarity.
  • Diagnosis: urinalysis, hematology, biochemistry.
  • Treatment: various chemotherapies.
  • Prognosis: varies.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Central form

  • Partial or total failure to synthesize or release ADH.
  • Rare.

May be

  • 1° - idiopathic.
  • 2° to:
    • Head trauma.
    • Neoplasia 1°/2°.
    • Inflammatory/vascular damage.

Nephrogenic form

  • Head trauma.
  • Neoplasia 1°/2°.
  • Inflammatory/vascular damage.
  • Failure of distal renal tubules to respond to ADH (renal tubule insensitivity).

May be

  • 1° - rare (inherited in man but no evidence for this in dogs).
  • 2° (acquired):
    • Non-specific condition - includes many conditions with impaired ADH action.
    • Renal + metabolic disorder → loss of ability to respond to ADH.
    • Most of these may be distinguished by typical history/signs/laboratory findings.
  • May be caused by:
    • Hyperadrenocorticism.
    • Hypercalcemia.
    • Hypoadrenocorticism.
    • Renal insufficiency.
    • Pyometra.
    • Hypokalemia.
    • Hepatic insufficiency.
    • Hyperthyroidism.
    • Iatrogenic.
    • Post-obstructive ureteral diuresis.

Specific

Central form

  • Neoplasia.
  • Trauma.
  • Inflammation.
  • Idiopathic.

Nephrogenic form

  • Renal medullary fibrosis, tubular necrosis.
  • Hypercalcemia.
  • Idiopathic.

Pathophysiology

  • Absolute or relative deficiency of ADH → marked polyuria and resultant polydipsia.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Ramsey I D, Dennis R & Herrtage M E (1999) Concurrent central diabetes insipidus and panhypopituitarism in a German shepherd dog. JSAP 40 (6), 271-274 PubMed.
  • Schwedes C S (1999) Transient diabetes insipidus in a dog with acromegaly. JSAP 40 (8), 392-396 PubMed.
  • Haberer B & Reusch C E (1998) Glycated haemoglobin in various pathological conditions - investigations based on a new, fully automated method. JSAP 39 (11), 510-7 PubMed.
  • Takemura N (1998) Successful long-term treatment of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipdus in a dog. JSAP 39 (12), 592-594 PubMed.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!