ISSN 2398-2969      

Cystitis

icanis

Introduction

  • Inflammation of the bladder.
  • Causes: usually an ascending bacterial infection; predisposing factors are necessary for this opportunistic infection. Rarer causes include cyclophosphamide toxicity, eosinophilic cystitis, polypoid cystitis, foreign bodies. 
  • Signs: stranguria, dysuria, increased frequency of urination (pollakiuria) and small amounts of urine, hematuria, abnormal smell/turbidity of the urine, more rarely abdominal discomfort, excessive licking, attracting male dogs.
  • Treatment: antibiotics, pain killers.
  • Sequelae: ascending urinary tract infections (pyelonephritis), diskospondylitis (rarely), prostatitis, sepsis, endocarditis, urolithiasis.
  • Prognosis: good if uncomplicated; guarded if chronic; poor if secondary to malignant neoplasia.
Print off the owner factsheet Cystitis (bladder inflammation) to give to your client.Follow the diagnostic tree for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

Causes of lower urinary tract infection and/or inflammation

  • Bladder distension (neurological or polyuria) increases binding sites for bacteria and reduces blood flow in bladder wall.
  • Decreased urethral function.

Pathophysiology

Timecourse

  • Days to weeks.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Llido M, Vachon C, Dickinson M et al (2020) Transurethral cystoscopy  in dogs with recurrent urinary tract infections: Retrospective study (2011-2018). J Vet Intern Med 34(2), 790-796 PubMed.
  • Weese J S, Blondeau J, Boothe D et al (2019) International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases (ISCAID) guidelines for the diagnosis and management ofbacterial urinary tract infections in dogs and cats. Vet J 247, 8-25 PubMed.
  • Clare S, Hartmann F A, Jooss M et al (2014) Short- and long-term cure rates of short-duration trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment in female dogs with uncomplicated bacterial cystitis. J Vet Intern Med 28(3), 818-826 PubMed.
  • Ling G V et al (2001) Interrelations of organism prevalence, specimen collection method, and host age, sex, and breed among 8534 canine urinary tract infections (1969-1995). JVIM 15 (4), 341-347 PubMed.
  • Norris C R, Williams B J et al (2000) Recurrent and persistent urinary tract infections in dogs - 383 cases (1969-1995). JAAHA 36 (6), 484-492 PubMed.
  • Low D A, Braaten B A, Ling G V, Johnson D L & Ruby A L (1988) Isolation and comparison of Escherichia coli strains from canine and human patients with urinary tract infections. Infect Immun 56 (10), 2601-2609 PubMed.
  • Thomsen M K, Svane L C & Poulsen P H (1986) Canine urinary tract infection. Detection, prevalence and therapeutic consequences of bacteriuria. Nord Vet Med 38 (6), 394-402 PubMed.
  • Ginder D R (1974) Urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli in dogs infected with canine adenovirus. J Infect Dis 129 (6), 715-719 PubMed.

Related Images

RELATED ARTICLES

Acute metritis

Acute prostatitis

Amoxicillin

Anal sac impaction

Anal sacculitis

Arthritis: polyarthritis - idiopathic

Arthritis: septic

Azotemia

Bladder: diverticulum

Bladder: neoplasia

Bladder: polypoid cystitis

Bladder: trauma rupture

Blood biochemistry: urea

Candida albicans

Ciclosporin

Clavulanate

Colitis: overview

Constipation

Cranberry extract containing proanthocyanidins for urinary health

Cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs)

Cyclophosphamide

Cystocentesis

Cystoscopy: transurethral cystoscopy/vaginoscopy

Diabetes mellitus

Discolored urine

Diskospondylitis

Dyssynergia

Dysuria investigation

Escherichia coli

Ethylenediamine

Furosemide

Hematology: leukocyte (WBC)

Hematuria

Hospital-associated infections

Hyperadrenocorticism

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state

Juvenile renal disease

Kidney: dysplasia

Kidney: pyelonephritis

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Lack or loss of housetraining

Morganella morganii

Mycoplasma canis

Mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas

Nephrotic syndrome

Pelvic bladder

Perianal fistula

Polyuria/polydispia (PU/PD)

Prostate: abscessation

Prostate: benign hyperplasia and hypertrophy

Prostate: cyst

Prostate: neoplasia

Proteinuria

Proteus spp

Radiography: cystography

Radiography: double contrast cystography

Radiology: lower urinary and genital tracts

Resistant bacterial infections

Shock: septic

Staphylococcus spp

Streptococcus spp

Therapeutics: urinary system

Trimethoprim

Ultrasonography: bladder and urinary tract

Ureter: ectopic

Ureter: neoplasia

Ureter: urolithiasis

Ureterocoele

Urethra: neoplasia

Urethra: obstruction

Urethral catheterization: female

Urethral catheterization: male

Urethrorectal fistula

Urinalysis: bacteriology

Urinalysis: blood

Urinalysis: centrifuge sediment

Urinalysis: protein

Urinalysis: white blood cell

Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence: urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI)

Urinary obstruction

Urolithiasis

Uterus: subinvolution of placental site

Vaginitis

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