Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Cystitis

Contributor(s): Phil Nicholls, Melissa Wallace, Julien Bazelle

Introduction

  • Inflammation of the bladder.
  • Causes: usually an ascending bacterial infection; predisposing factors are necessary for this opportunistic infection. Rarer causes include cyclophosphamide toxicity, eosinophilic cystitis, polypoid cystitis, foreign bodies. 
  • Signs: stranguria, dysuria, increased frequency of urination (pollakiuria) and small amounts of urine, hematuria, abnormal smell/turbidity of the urine, more rarely abdominal discomfort, excessive licking, attracting male dogs.
  • Treatment: antibiotics, pain killers.
  • Sequelae: ascending urinary tract infections (pyelonephritis), diskospondylitis (rarely), prostatitis, sepsis, endocarditis, urolithiasis.
  • Prognosis: good if uncomplicated; guarded if chronic; poor if secondary to malignant neoplasia.
Print off the owner factsheet Cystitis (bladder inflammation) to give to your client.Follow the diagnostic tree for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

Causes of lower urinary tract infection and/or inflammation

  • Bladder distension (neurological or polyuria) increases binding sites for bacteria and reduces blood flow in bladder wall.
  • Decreased urethral function.

Pathophysiology

Timecourse

  • Days to weeks.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Llido M, Vachon C, Dickinson M et al (2020) Transurethral cystoscopy  in dogs with recurrent urinary tract infections: Retrospective study (2011-2018). J Vet Intern Med 34(2), 790-796 PubMed.
  • Weese J S, Blondeau J, Boothe D et al (2019) International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases (ISCAID) guidelines for the diagnosis and management ofbacterial urinary tract infections in dogs and cats. Vet J 247, 8-25 PubMed.
  • Clare S, Hartmann F A, Jooss M et al (2014) Short- and long-term cure rates of short-duration trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment in female dogs with uncomplicated bacterial cystitis. J Vet Intern Med 28(3), 818-826 PubMed.
  • Ling G V et al (2001) Interrelations of organism prevalence, specimen collection method, and host age, sex, and breed among 8534 canine urinary tract infections (1969-1995). JVIM 15 (4), 341-347 PubMed.
  • Norris C R, Williams B J et al (2000) Recurrent and persistent urinary tract infections in dogs - 383 cases (1969-1995). JAAHA 36 (6), 484-492 PubMed.
  • Low D A, Braaten B A, Ling G V, Johnson D L & Ruby A L (1988) Isolation and comparison of Escherichia coli strains from canine and human patients with urinary tract infections. Infect Immun 56 (10), 2601-2609 PubMed.
  • Thomsen M K, Svane L C & Poulsen P H (1986) Canine urinary tract infection. Detection, prevalence and therapeutic consequences of bacteriuria. Nord Vet Med 38 (6), 394-402 PubMed.
  • Ginder D R (1974) Urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli in dogs infected with canine adenovirus. J Infect Dis 129 (6), 715-719 PubMed.


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