ISSN 2398-2969      

Chronic bronchitis

icanis

Synonym(s): Chronic tracheobronchial syndrome


Introduction

  • Chronic airway inflammation.
  • Defined as coughing on most days of at least two consecutive months during the last year.
  • Signs: coughing.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, bronchoscopy, cytology.
  • Treatment: anti-inflammatory drugs, bronchodilators, airway therapy.
  • Prognosis: guarded - chronic progressive disease, relapsing course due to irreversible airway changes.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Hypotheses

  • Unknown.
  • Inhaled irritants repeated over prolonged period, months or years (cigarette smoke, atmospheric pollution, cold air).
  • Previous respiratory infection may play a role.

Predisposing factors

General

Underlying respiratory pathology

  • Chronic damage to respiratory tract.
  • Genetic factors → mucus clearance deficits (not proven in dogs).
  • Age (>7-10 years).
  • Inhaled irritants.
  • Previous respiratory infection.
  • Obesity Obesity complicates disease.

Pathophysiology

  • Initiating factors → chronic airway inflammation, poor ciliary performance, increased mucus secretion → airway thickening, obstructive disease → bronchiectasis Lung: bronchiectasis /bullous emphysema Lung: pulmonary emphysema.
  • Inflammation and excessive mucus → plug small airways → secondary bacterial infection possible.
  • Thickened, obstructed airways → air trapping → ventilation/perfusion anomalies → secondary damage.
  • Bacterial or viral infection may precipitate acute deterioration in condition and contribute to chronic damage.

Timecourse

  • Months-years.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • McKiernan B C (2000) Diagnosis and treatment of canine chronic bronchitis. Twenty years of experience. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 30 (6), 1267-1278 PubMed.
  • Mantis P, Lamb C R & Boswood A (1998) Assessment of the accuracy of thoracic radiography in the diagnosis of canine chronic bronchitis. JSAP 39 (11), 518 PubMed.
  • Padrid P & Amis T C (1992) Chronic tracheobronchial disease in the dog. Vet Clin North Am 22 (5), 1203-1227 PubMed.
  • Padrid P A, Hornot W, Kurpeshoeu C & Cross C E (1990) Canine chronic bronchitis - a pathophysiologic evaluation of 18 cases. JVIM 4 (3), 172-180 PubMed.

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