Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Cartilaginous exostosis

Synonym(s): Osteochondromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, diaphyseal aclasis, deforming chondrodysplasia, multiple cartilaginous exostosis

Contributor(s): Prof Mark Rochat

Introduction

  • Benign proliferative disease of cartilage and bone.
  • Incidence: predominantly young dogs; familial tendency.
  • Signs: bony enlargements - any bone of skeleton except skull, but especially vertebrae, ribs, long bones; lameness where interferes with normal joint movement, muscle function or impinges on nerves.
  • Diagnosis: radiography.
  • Treatment: surgical removal - unnecessary unless causing pain or dysfunction.
  • Prognosis: good where no clinical complications and animal skeletally mature; guarded where animal still growing.
  • A very small proportion undergo malignant transformation to chondrosarcoma /osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.

Pathophysiology

  • Benign proliferation of cartilage and bone.
  • Familial tendency.
  • Hereditary nature of the condition is unknown.
  • ?Chondrocytes in normal epiphyseal plate are forced into surrounding metaphyseal bone where they proliferate into large areas of cartilage → bone.
  • ?Pieces of growth plate are extruded and commence independent growth transverse to normal axis of bone → exostosis with cartilagenous cap. Bone grows → exostoses further from growth plate.
  • Exostosis: may impinge on nerves → neurological deficits; may interfere with normal joint/muscle/tendon function → lameness; may be asymptomatic.
  • Most stop growing after closure of growth plates.
  • A very small proportion undergo malignant transformation to chondrosarcoma Chondrosarcoma /osteosarcomas Osteosarcoma.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Caporn T M, Read R A (1996) Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine causing compressive myelopathy in a dog. JSAP 37 (3), 133-137 PubMed.
  • Jacobson L S, Kirberger R M (1996) Canine multiple cartilagenous exostosis - unusual manifestations & a review of the literature. JAAHA 32 (1), 45-51 PubMed.
  • Gregory S P, Pearson G R (1990) Synovial osteochondromatosis in a labrador retriever bitch. JSAP 31 (11), 580-533 VetMedResource.


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