Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Carpus: luxation

Contributor(s): Sarah Girling, Prof Walter Renberg

Introduction

  • Any joint of carpus; rarely radial carpal bone.
  • Cause: fall, vehicular trauma, work; hyperextension injury Carpus: hyperextension common (rare with radial carpal bone luxation).
  • Sign: obvious joint instability due to ligamentous damage.
  • Treatment: radial carpal luxation: reduction + ligamentous reconstruction.
    Hyperextension injury can rarely be treated by reduction + ligamentous reconstruction and usually requires arthrodesis.
  • Prognosis: without surgical intervention, poor:
    • Carpal panarthrodesis - good.
    • Partial carpal arthrodesis- good. OA at antebrachiocarpal joint may occur; previsouly unidentified ligament injuries at antebrachiocarpal joint may become obvious following partial arthrodesis.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Trauma, eg fall, road traffic accident (+/- degloving injury, concurrent injuries).

Pathophysiology

  • Traumatic rupture of ligaments of carpus (any joint) resulting in joint instability and luxation.
Radial carpal bone luxation
  • Radial collateral ligament and other dorsal and intercarpal ligaments rupture.
  • Radial carpal bone rotates caudal to radius.
  • Palmar ligaments spared injury.
  • Hyperextension usually not present.
  • Large tensile force generated on palmar aspect of carpus leads to disruption of palmar ligaments and fibrocartilage.
  • Intercarpal and carpometacarpal joints affected more often than antebrachiocarpal in canine patients.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Cetinkaya M A, Yardimci C 7 Saglam M (2007) Carpal laxity syndrome in forty three puppies. VCOT 20 (2), 126-130 PubMed.
  • Guilliard M J (2001) Accessory carpal bone displacement in two dogs. JSAP 42, 603-606 PubMed.
  • Denny H R & Barr A R S (1991) Partial carpal and pancarpal arthrodesis in the dog: a review of 50 cases. JSAP 32 (7), 329-334 VetMedResource.


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