Canis ISSN: 2398-2942
Brachial plexus: avulsion
Synonym(s): Brachial plexopathy
Contributor(s): Kyle Braund, Prof Mark Rochat,
- See brachial plexus root avulsion Brachial plexus: root avulsion.
- Clinical signs more severe than partial avulsions.
- Cause: result of trauma, usually road traffic accidents (RTA).
- Signs: neurological deficits apparent immediately following injury.
- Neurogenic muscle atrophy takes 7-10 days to develop.
- Prognosis: for recovery poor.
- Traumatic traction of spinal nerve roots at their origin inside the dura mater.
- Lack of leash laws and/or irresponsible pet ownership.
- Intact dog.
- Bitch in heat.
- Dog lives on busy road or in city.
- Dog allowed to exercise unsupervised.
- Old or faulty extending lead.
- Dog exercised off the lead.
- Limb forcibly abducted or rotated at its attachment to the body → traumatic traction on the spinal nerve roots at their origin inside the dura mater → disruption of the neural elements → interruption of spinal reflexes. Ventral roots are especially susceptible.
- Skin desensitization → decrease in muscle tone → onset of neurogenic muscle atrophy.
- Some shrinkage of the areas of skin desensitization as nerves grow in from neighboring innervated areas.
- Neurological deficits apparent immediately after injury.
- Neurogenic muscle atrophy from 7-10 days after injury.
- Recent references fromPubMed.
- Forterre Fet al(1998)Myelography by computer tomography for the diagnosis of brachial plexus avulsion in small animals.Tierarzt Praxis26(5), 322-329PubMed.
- Steinberg H S (1988)Brachial plexus injuries and dysfunctions.Vet Clin North Am18, 565-580PubMed.
- Wheeler S Jet al(1986)The diagnosis of brachial plexus disorders in dogs - a review of twenty-two cases.JSAP27(3), 147-157.
- Bailey C S (1984)Patterns of cutaneous anesthesia associated with brachial plexus avulsions in the dog.JAVMA185(8), 889-899PubMed.