ISSN 2398-2969      

Bladder: neoplasia

icanis

Introduction

  • The storage function of the bladder may allow for prolonged contact with carcinogens.
  • Cause: 2% of all canine tumors: epithelial (most common), or connective tissue.
  • Signs: hematuria, stranguria, dysuria, pollakiuria are common presenting signs. Chronic urinary tract infection (UTI).
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs and ancillary testing.
  • Treatment: chemotherapy/radiotherapy. Stenting or cystotomy tube.
  • Prognosis: poor to fair - due to early local recurrence, poor response to treatment, metastasis or surgical difficulty. (Often only partial resection possible.)

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General
  • Carcinogens/older-generation flea-control products and lawn chemicals (naphthylamines, benzidines, aminophenols, petroleum distillates).
  • Iatrogenic: use of cyclophosphamide Cyclophosphamide.
  • Endogenous carcinogens (metabolites of tryptophan). Cats don't metabolize tryptophan to these chemicals (this may explain the lower incidence of bladder tumors in cats compared to dogs).
  • Obesity (increased carcinogenic agents).
  • Protective effect of vegetables in the diet.

Pathophysiology

  • Predisposing factors (breed, carcinogens) → prolonged contact of carcinogens in urine with bladder wall → neoplastic change.
  • Often trigone of bladder involved → signs of lower urinary tract disease and occasionally obstruction of ureters.

Timecourse

  • Often Stage T2 (invading bladder wall), or T3 (invading neighboring organs), at time of diagnosis.
  • If tumor can be surgically resected, survival times of 4-12 months have been reported. This is often difficult as tumor is most commonly situated at trigone and similar prognosis is achieved with chemotherapy alone.
  • Chemotherapy may extend survival to 10-12 months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Allstadt S D, Rodriguez C O JR, Boostrom B, Rebhun R B, Skorupski K A (2015) Randomized phase III trial of piroxicam in combination with mitoxantrone or carboplatin for first-line treatment of urogenital tract transitional cell carcinoma in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 29 (1), 261-267 PubMed.
  • Fulkerson C M, Knapp D W (2015) Management of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in dogs: a review. Vet J 205 (2), 217-225 PubMed.
  • Blackburn A L, Berent A C, Weisse C W, Brown D C (2013) Evaluation of outcome following urethral stent placement for the treatment of obstructive carcinoma of the urethra in dogs: 42 cases (2004-2008). JAVMA 242 (1), 59-68 PubMed.
  • Henry C J, Tyler J W et al (2003) Evaluation of a bladder tumor antigen test as a screening test for transitional cell carcinoma of the lower urinary tract in dogs. Am J Vet Res 64 (8), 1017-1020 PubMed.
  • Stone E A, George T F, Gilson S D & Page P L (1996) Partial cystectomy for urinary bladder neoplasia - surgical technique & outcome in 11 dogs. JSAP 37 (10), 480-485 PubMed.

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