ISSN 2398-2969      

Aspergillosis: disseminated

icanis

Introduction

  • CauseAspergillus spp (most commonly Aspergillus terreus Aspergillus terreus), infection by spores (usually inhaled).
  • Signs: severe debilitating disease that affects many body organs.
  • Disseminated aspergillosis is typically seen in German shepherd dogs German Shepherd Dog.
  • Diagnosis: cytology, histopathology, microbiology.
  • Treatment: difficult; systemic itraconazole Itraconazole , amphotericin B Amphotericin B.
  • Prognosis: grave.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • A. terreus.
  • A. deflectus.
  • A. fumigatus.
  • A. niger.
  • A. flavipes.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Access to saprophytic fungi in soil and decaying vegetation.

Specific

  • Affected German shepherd dogs may have specific immune defects.
  • Defect in mucocutaneous immunity.
  • Concurrent treatment with corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs (cyclosporine in particular).

Pathophysiology

  • Inhalation of fungal spores causes a local pulmonary infection.
  • Defective mucosal immunity allows the fungal infection to become systemic. It spreads hematogenously to multiple organs, including the kidneys, bones, vertebra, liver, spleen, adrenal glands, heart, brain, eyes, etc.

Timecourse

  • Some cases: rapid progression over 2-3 weeks.
  • Other cases, more gradual.

Epidemiology

  • Worldwide, ubiquitous saprophytic fungi → inhalation of fungal spores.
  • A. terreus: from soil, decaying vegetation, grain.
  • A. deflectus: from soil.
  • A. fumigatus: from decaying vegetation, sewage sludge, compost, moldy hay, etc.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Corrigan V K, Legendre A M, Wheat L J et al (2015) Treatment of disseminated aspergillosis with posaconazole in 10 dogs. JVIM 30 (1), 167-173 PubMed.
  • Taylor A R, Young B D, Levine G J et al (2015) Clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging findings in 7 dogs with central nervous systemic aspergillosis. JVIM 29 (6), 1556-1563 PubMed.
  • Schultz R M, Johnson E G, Wisner E R et al (2008) Clincopathologic and diagnostic imaging characteristics of systemic aspergillosis in 30 dogs. JVIM 22 (4), 851-859 PubMed.
  • Robinson W F, Connole M D, King T J et al (2000) Systemic mycosis due to Aspergillus deflectus in a dog. Aust Vet J 78 (9), 600-602 PubMed.
  • Pérez J, Mozos E, DeLara F E et al (1996) Disseminated aspergillosis in a dog: an immunohistochemical study. J Comp Path 115 (2), 191-196 PubMed.
  • Starkey R J & McLoughlin M A (1996) Treatment of renal aspergillosis in a dog using nephrostomy tubes. J Vet Intern Med 10 (5), 336-338 PubMed.
  • Kelly S E, Shaw S E, Clark W T (1995) Long-term survival of four dogs with disseminated Aspergillus terreus infection treated with itraconazole. Aust Vet J 72 (8), 311-313 PubMed.
  • Kaufman A C, Greene C E, Selcer B E et al (1994) Systemic aspergillosis in a dog and treatment with hamycin. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 30 (2), 132-136 VetMedResource.
  • Neer T M (1988) Disseminated aspergillosis. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 10 (4), 465-471 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Day M J (2012) Canine disseminated aspergillosis. In: Greene C E Infectious diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th edn. W B Saunders, Philadelphia. p 412.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!