Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Arthritis: rickettsial

Contributor(s): Leah Cohn, James Cook, John Innes

Introduction

  • Tick-transmitted non-erosive polyarthritis.
  • Cause:Ehrlicia Ewingii(granulocytic ehrlichiosis),Anaplasma phagocytophilum(granulocytic canine anaplasmosis),Rickettsia rickettsii(Rocky Mountain Spotted fever; RMSF).
  • Signs: polyarthropathy (eg reluctance to rise, reluctance to walk, "walking on eggshells" gait, shifting lameness), fever, inappetence, neurologic signs most common.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, compatible laboratory findings (sometimes including identification morulae), serology, molecular diagnostics.
  • Treatment: tetracyclines.
  • Prognosis: for granulocytic ehrlichiosis and granulocytic canine anaplasmosis, prognosis is excellent. For Rocky Mountain spotted fever, prognosis is good with early treatment but the disease can be fatal.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Ehrlichia Ewingii(granulocytic ehrlichiosis).
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum(granulocytic canine anaplasmosis).
  • Rickettsia rickettsii(Rocky Mountain spotted fever; RMSF).

Specific

  • Tick bites by infected ticks.

Pathophysiology

  • Hematogenous spread of causal organism to synovial membrane → inflammatory reaction within joint → non-erosive polyarthritis Arthritis: non-erosive.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Eberts M D, Vissotto de Paiva Diniz P P, Beall M J, Stillman B A, Chandrashekar R & Breitschwerdt E B (2011) Typical and atypical manifestations of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in dogs. JAAHA 47, e86-94 PubMed.
  • Yabsley M J, Adams D S, O'Connor T P, Chandrashekar R & Little S E (2011) Experimental primary and secondary infections of domestic dogs with Ehrlichia ewingii. Vet Microbiol 150, 315-321 PubMed.
  • Nicholson W L, Allen K E, McQuiston J H, Breitschwerdt E B & Little E (2010) The increasing recognition of rickettsial pathogens in dogs and people. Trends Parasitol 26 (4), 205-212 PubMed.
  • Carrade D D, Foley J E, Borjesson D L & Sykes J E (2009) Canine granulocytic anaplasmosis: a review. J Vet Intern Med 23, 1129-1141 PubMed.
  • Beall M J, Chandrashekar R, Eberts M D, Cyr K E, Diniz P P, Mainville C, Hegarty B C, Crawford J M & Breitschwerdt E B (2008) Serological and molecular prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia species in dogs from Minnesota. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8, 455-464 PubMed.
  • Gasser A M, Birkenheuer A J & Breitschwerdt E B (2001) Canine Rocky Mountain Spotted fever: a retrospective study of 30 cases. JAAHA 37, 41-48 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Infectious diseases of the dog and cat.(2012) C.E. Greene (ed). 4th edn, Elsevier Saunders:
    • Rocky Mountain and Mediterranean Spotted Fevers, cat-flea Typhuslike illness, Rickettsialpox, and Typhus.C E Greene, L. Kidd, E B Breitschwerdt. Chapter 27, p 259.
    • Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections.C G Cocayne, L A Cohn.Ehrlichia ewingii infection (canine granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis)Chapter 26, p 238.
    • Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection (canine granulocytotropic anaplasmosis).P P Diniz, E B Breitschwerdt. p 244.
    • Joint infections.C E Greene, David Bennett. p 908.


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