Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Arthritis: polyarthritis - idiopathic

Contributor(s): John Innes

Introduction

  • Most common immune-mediated arthropathy.
  • Inflammatory, non-erosive, polyarthritis.
  • Other body systems may be involved; categorized (into 4) according to concomitant pathology.
  • Signs: stiffness, pyrexia, unwillingness to walk with complications, eg dermatitis, glomerulonephritis Glomerulonephritis , uveitis, retinitis.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, cytopathology.
  • Treatment: depends on etiology.
  • Prognosis: fair.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • A definite cause and effect relationship between the polysynovitis and the concomitant pathology has yet to be confirmed.

Pathophysiology

  • See immune mediated arthritides Arthritis: immune-mediated
  • Categories of the disease are classified by association with concomitant pathology. It is thought that co-existing pathology contributes to immune complex formation and thus leads to Type 3 (immune complex) hypersensitivity in the synovial membrane.
Type 1
  • The etiopathogenesis may be similar in all cases, but individual susceptibilities dictate which dogs develop progressive disease.
Type 2
  • The chronic infection is thought to act as an antigen source for persistent immune complex formation.
Type 3
  • It is thought that the gastrointestinal disease leads to an increase in intestinal permeability to foreign antigens, resulting in chronic formation of immune complexes.
Type 4
  • Tumor cells may act as a source of chronic antigenic stimulus.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Boon G D (1997) Synovial fluid analysis - a guide for general practitioners. Vet Med 92, 443-451.
  • Ellison R S (1988) The cytological examination of synovial fluid. Semin Vet Surg 3 (2), 133-139 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Bennett D (1995)Treatment of immune based inflammatory arthropathies of the dog and cat.In:Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy XII.Ed: J D Bonagura and R W Kirk, W B Saunders Co, Philadelphia.


ADDED