ISSN 2398-2942      

Streptococcus spp

icanis

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Phylum: Firmicutes
  • Class: Bacilli
  • Order: Lactobacillales
  • FamilyStreptococceae
  • GenusStreptococcus

Etymology

  • Gk: streptos - twisted; kokkos - grain, berry, seed.

Active Forms

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Environmental streptococci are rarely associated with disease.
  • Many animal-associated streptococci are commensals on mucosal surfaces of respiratory, GI or urogenital systems.
  • Streptococcus canis Streptococcus canis , is a host-adapted, beta-hemolytic species.

Lifecycle

  • Cells divide by binary fission to produce pairs or chains.

Transmission

  • Most streptococcal infections are cause by endogenous flora.
  • Horizontal transmission may occur by inhalation, ingestion, congenital or sexual contact, and contact with contaminated fomites.
  • Zoonotic transmission is rare, eg dog to man (S.equi subsp zooepidemicus Streptococcus equi , horse to dog (S.equi subsp equi), man to dog (S.pyogenes).

Pathological effects

  • Host defense depends on phagocytosis.
  • Capsules of some species antiphagocytic.
  • Antibodies may be raised against M protein or other surface antigens.
  • Recovered animals have short-term resistance to reinfection.
  • Immunity is serotype-specific.
  • Most streptococci are opportunistic pathogens.
  • Beta-hemolytic species more frequently associated with acute disease.
  • Streptococci are pyogenic bacteria that elicit suppurative host inflammatory responses.
  • Adhesins mediate attachment.
  • Extracellular products may include streptolysin O and S, hyaluronidase, DNAase, protease, streptokinase, streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins.
  • Virulence mechanisms are often unknown.

Other Host Effects

Clinical

  • Disease manifestations include: abscesses (cutaneous, lymphatic, oropharyngeal, etc), neonatal septicemia, endocarditis, pneumonia, necrotizing fascilitis Skin: necrotizing fasciitis , toxic shock.

Other

  • Co-pathogens found in some infections.

Control

Control via animal

  • Isolate and treat clinically affected animals.
  • Isolate and treat exposed animals (to control outbreak).
  • Quarantine until 2 weeks after resolution of signs (for contagious species).
  • General health maintenance including dental health and nutrition.

Control via chemotherapies

  • Usually susceptible to penicillin Benzylpenicillin , cephalosporins, and potentiated sulfonamides, macrolides, chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol.
  • Often resistant to aminoglycosides and tetracyclines.
  • Treatment only effective if started early following onset of clinical signs.
  • Endo and ecto parasite control.

Control via environment

  • Clean, disinfect and dry all environmental surfaces that were exposed to infected dogs.
  • Most disinfectants, at recommended use dilutions and contact times, effectively kill pathogenic streptococci.
  • Use of separate protective clothing (glove, mask, footwear, etc) when examining infected animals.

Vaccination

  • No streptococcal vaccines available for use in dogs.
  • Maintain recommended vaccinations against other agents.

Other countermeasures

  • Isolate newly admitted dogs from clinically affected and exposed dogs.
  • Prophylactic treatment of newly admitted dogs may be indicated in some circumstances.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Abbott Y, Acke E, Khan S (2010) Zoonotic transmission of Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus from a dog to a handler. J Med Microbiol 59 (1), 120-123 PubMed.
  • Pesavento P A, Hurley K F, Bannash M J et al (2008) A clonal outbreak of acute fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia in intensively housed (shelter) dogs caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Vet Pathol 45 (1), 51-53 PubMed.
  • Kim M K, Jee H, Shin S W et al (2007) Outbreak and control of haemorrhagic pneumonia due to Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus in dogs. Vet Rec 161 (15), 528-530 PubMed.
  • Ladlow J, Scase T & Waller A (2006) Canine strangles case reveals a new host susceptible to infection with Streptococcus equi. J Clin Microbiol 44 (7), 2664-2665 PubMed.
  • Vela A I, Falsen E, Simarro I et al (2006) Neonatal mortality in puppies due to bacteremia by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. J Clin Microbiol 44 (2) 666-668 PubMed.
  • DeWinter L M & Prescott J F (1999) Relatedness of Streptococcus canis from canine streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis. Can J Vet Res 63 (2), 90-95 PubMed.
  • Falck G (1997) Group A streptococci in household pets eyes--a source of infection in humans? Scand J Infect Dis 29 (5), 469-471 PubMed.
  • Messier S, Daminet S & Lemarchand T (1995) Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis with embolization in a dog. Can Vet J 36 (11), 703-704 PubMed.
  • Ramos-Vara J A, Briones V, Segalés J et al (1994) Concurrent infection with Streptococcus equisimilis and Leishmania in a dog. J Vet Diagn Invest (3), 371-375 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Hirsh D C & Biberstein E L (2004) Streptococcus and Enterococcus. In: Hirsh DC, MacLachlan N J & Walker R L (eds) Veterinary Microbiology, 2nd edn, Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, USA, pp 159-167.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code