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Pasteurella multocida

icanis
Contributor(s):

Richard Walker

Synonym(s): P. multocida


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Pasteurellaceae.
  • Genus: Pasteurella.
  • Closely related to the genus Actinobacillus.
  • Species: multocida.

Etymology

  • Pasteurella - after Pasteur.
  • Multocida: L: multus - many; cida - to kill; multocida - many-killing, ie pathogenic for many animals.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Carried on the mucous membranes of susceptible host species. Widespread in carnivores.

Lifecycle

  • Multiplies on mucous membranes of host.

Transmission

  • Usually via the respiratory tract.

Pathological effects

  • Antibodies are protective against hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle, but little is known about immunity in other species.
  • All members of the genus are probably parasites.
  • Stress, eg concurrent viral infection → becomes pathogenic.
  • Endotoxins are important in septicemic diseases, eg bovine hemorrhagic septicemia.
  • Thermolabile dermonecrotoxin is important in atrophic rhinitis of pigs.
  • Animal to animal spread usually via the respiratory tract and virulence is enhanced by transmission.

Diseases caused

  • Serogroup A:
    • Pneumonia or suppurative conditions, eg abscesses, mastitis in cattle, sheep, pigs, rabbits and other species.
    • Fowl cholera.
    • Also found as commensals.
  • Serogroup B:
    • Epizootic hemorrhagic septicemia in ruminants.
    • Also found as commensals.
  • Serogroup D:
    • Atrophic rhinitis in pigs (may be in association withBordetella bronchiseptica).
    • Pneumonia in pigs and other animals.
  • Serogroup E:
    • Epizootic hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle and water buffalo in Africa.
  • Serogroup F:
    • Found in turkeys - role unclear.

Other Host Effects

  • Carried on mucous membranes, especially of carnivores.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

  • Most strains of P. multocida are sensitive to penicillin, sulfonamides and tetracyclines.
  • Plasmid-based resistance to many commonly used antibiotics is widely found.

Vaccination

  • Killed vaccine available for cattle, poultry and pigs.
  • Some attenuated, live vaccines used in poultry.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Mohan K, Sadza M, Madsen M et al (1994) Phenotypic characterization of Zimbabwean isolates of Pasteurella multocida. Vet Microbiol 38 (4), 351-357 PubMed.
  • Bjurström L & Linde-Forsberg C (1992) Long-term study of aerobic bacteria of the genital tract in stud dogs. Am Vet Res 53 (5), 670-673 PubMed.
  • Bjurström L & Linde-Forsberg C (1992) Long-term study of aerobic bacteria of the genital tract in breeding bitches. Am J Vet Res 53 (5), 665-669 PubMed.
  • Collins F M (1977) Mechanisms of acquired resistance to Pasteurella multocida infection: a review. Cornell Veterinarian 67 (1), 103-138 PubMed.

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