Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Vaginal injury: repair

Contributor(s): Ash Phipps , John Tulloch

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Introduction

  • Vaginal injuries are a common occurrence for primiparous animals.
  • Vaginal injuries are associated with parturition , particularly in dystocia cases with forced extractions and manipulation of the fetus and/or fetopelvic disproportion.
  • Vaginal wall lacerations can result in prolapse of the bladder or perivaginal fat.
  • Other vaginal lacerations are known as perineal lacerations, and occur in the dorsal aspect of vestibule and vagina.
  • Perineal lacerations are classified into three degrees:
    • First degree - is defined as a laceration that involves the skin and mucus membrane of the vestibule.
    • Second degree - is defined as a laceration that involves the skin, mucus membrane and disruption of the fibro muscular tissues between the vagina/vestibule and rectum.
    • Third degree - is defined as a laceration that resulted in a complete disruption of the tissues between the vestibule and rectum, which results in complete communication between the vestibule and rectum. 

Uses

Advantages

  • The procedure can be carried out in the standing animal.
  • The procedure for third degree perineal laceration repair can be completed eight to twelve weeks after the traumatic event (when healing has commenced and swelling has subsided).

Disadvantages

  • Can be a technically difficult procedure to carry out.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Good - low incidence of complications.
  • Poor to guarded - if the lacerataions have resulted in peritonal contamination of uterine fluids or fecal material.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Prado T M, Schumacher J & Dawson L J (2016) Surgical procedures of the genital organs of cows. Veterinary clinics of North America: food animal practice 32 (3), 727-752 PubMed.
  • Dreyfuss D J, Tulleners E P, Donawick W J & Ducharme N G (1990) Third degree perineal lacerations and rectovestibular fistulae in cattle: 20 cases (1981-1988). JAVMA 196, 768-770 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Fubini S L & Ducharme N (2004) Farm animal surgery. Elsevier Health Sciences, St Louis, Missouri, USA. pp 399- 402.


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