Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Esophageal obstruction: probang technique

Synonym(s): choke

Contributor(s): Ash Phipps , Adam Dunstan-Martin

Introduction

  • Esophageal obstruction in cattle is most commonly related to ingestion of feedstuffs.
  • Commonly occurs when feedstuffs such as fruit (apples and especially unripe kiwifruits), onions, root crops (turnips, beets, potatoes, and swedes) and ears of corn are ingested rapidly without mastication.
  • The esophageal foreign body my lodge the cervical region, thoracic inlet, base of the heart and the cardia of the rumen.
  • The obstruction may be partial or complete.
    • Complete: secondary free gas rumen tympany with an inability to drink, eat or swallow saliva -> can become an emergency condition.
    • Partial: mild signs or rumen tympany.
  • The condition is often referred to as ‘choke’ or esophageal foreign body.
  • This article with focus on the non-surgical management of esophageal obstruction.
Clinical signs of esophageal obstructions can also be similar to conditions outside the lumen of the esophagus or in the oral cavity, therefore a thorough examination is required to rule these conditions out.
  • Outside the esophageal lumen:
    • Compression of the esophagus due to abscess or hematoma along the neck.
    • Compression due to neoplasia (especially lymphosarcoma of the thymus or mediastinal lymph nodes).
  • Oral cavity:
    • Stomatitis (BVDV, calf diphtheria, vesicular stomatitis). Stomatitis
    • Pharyngeal trauma (balling gun injury).

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Good - low incidence of complications.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Parkinson T J, Vermunt J J & Malmo J (2010) Diseases of cattle in Australasia: a comprehensive textbook. New Zealand Veterinary Association Foundation for Continuing Education, Wellington, NZ.
  • Anderson D E & Rings M (2008) Current veterinary therapy: food animal practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. St Louis, Missouri, USA.
  • Divers T J & Peek S (2007) Rebhun's diseases of dairy cattle. Elsevier Health Sciences. St Louis, Missouri, USA.
  • Fubini S L & Ducharme N (2004) Farm animal surgery. Elsevier Health Sciences, St Louis, Missouri, USA.


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