Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Tracheostomy: adult and calf

Synonym(s): Tracheostomy Tracheotomy

Contributor(s): Paul Wood , Gayle Hallowell

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Introduction

  • This article discusses the procedure of tracheostomy – whereby an opening is created into the trachea, with insertion of an indwelling tube.
    • A tracheotomy refers to incision of the trachea for exploration, sample collection or foreign body removal. 
  • Tracheostomy is an emergency procedure to relieve acute upper respiratory tract obstruction.
  • Permanent tracheostomies can be performed where there is permanent impairment of upper airway flow.

Uses

Emergency

Chronic conditions

  • Neoplasia.
  • Laryngeal paralysis.
  • Laryngeal edema Disorders of the larynx.
  • Arytenoid chondritis.
  • Necrotic laryngobacillosis (calf diptheria).
  • Hematoma from jugular venepuncture in a calf.

Advantages

  • Can be performed standing.
  • Relatively simple surgery.
  • Cheap.

Disadvantages

  • Wound infections common (especially in emergency situation without aseptic technique).
  • Some aftercare required.
  • Long term damage to tracheal cartilages.
  • Compromises repsiratory defense mechanisms; may lead to bronchopneumonia.
  • Frequent monitoring and cleaning of tube in the acute phase after performing procedure.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • After removal of the tube, healing is rapid.
  • Second intention healing should be complete by 14 days.
  • If the primary cause of obstruction has been resolved then prognosis is good.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed paper

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMed Resource.
  • Nichols S (2008) Tracheotomy and Tracheostomy Tube placement in cattle. Vet Clin Food Anim 24, pp 307-317.

Other sources of information

  • Gaughan E M et al (2004) Disorders of the extrathoracic trachea. In: Farm Animal Surgery. Fubini and Ducharme (eds). Saunders, pp 153-154
  • Baird A N (2014) Bovine General Surgery: Tracheotomy. In: Turner and McIlwraith's Techniques in Large Animal Surgery. Hendrickson and Baird (eds), pp 288-289


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