Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Pericardiocentesis

Synonym(s): Cardiac tamponade aspiration

Contributor(s): Louise Cox-O’Shea , Gayle Hallowell

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Introduction

  • There is a potential space between the myocardium and the pericardium (the pericardial sac).
  • This may become distended with fluid.
  • Pressure within the pericardial sac compromises cardiac function (cardiac tamponade) - particularly by causing collapse of the thinner-walled right ventricle.
  • Cardiac tamponade → acute congestive heart failure.

Uses

  • Drainage of pericardial fluid.
  • Septic pericarditis (ie secondary to traumatic Reticulitis Reticulitis/ wire/ nail etc). A penetrating foreign body, originating from the reticulum, is almost always the cause of pericarditis in cattle.
  • Idiopathic pericardial effusion (hemorrhage). Cardiac tamponade
  • Pericardial/heart base tumors  → transudation or hemorrhage .

Advantages

  • Life-saving.
  • Minimally invasive procedure when correctly performed.
  • Produces rapid benefit to patient.

Disadvantages

  • Risk of lacerating myocardium or coronary arteries.
  • May be unable to drain all fluid from pericardial sac.
  • Risk of recurrence of fluid accumulation.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Guarded/poor prognosis for septic Pericarditis Pericarditis and neoplasia. Usually just a salvage procedure or short term solution to try to get a dam, carrying a valuable calf, to the point of parturition.
  • Good for resolution of clinical signs acutely.
  • Pericardial effusion may recur weeks to years later if idiopathic.
  • Prognosis following repeated drainages is less good.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMed Resource.
  • Athar H, Parrah J D, Moulvi B A, Singh M & Dedmari F H (2012) Pericarditis in Bovines - A Review. International Journal of Advanced Veterinary Science and Technology 1 (1), pp 19-27.

Other sources of information

  • Tobias A H (2010) Pericardial diseases. In: Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine.7th edn. Eds: Saunders Elsevier. pp 1342-1352.
  • Kienle R D, Kittleson M D (2005) Pericardial disease and cardiac neoplasia. In: Small Animal Cardiovascular Medicine. St Louis: Mosby.
  • Sisson D, Thomas W (1999) Pericardial disease and cardiac tumours. In: Textbook of Canine and Feline Cardiology. 2nd edn. Eds: W B Saunders Company. Philadelphia. pp 679-701.


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