Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Teat: traumatic and non-infectious conditions

Synonym(s): Teat end callosity, hyperkeratosis, teat canal base compression rings, apex compressions, chaps, summer sores, black spot, ischemic teat necrosis, teat spider, supernumerary teats, blind quarters

Contributor(s): Daniel Veselinov , James Breen

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Introduction

  • Traumatic conditions include:
    • Teat end callosity.
    • Teat canal eversion.
    • Teat base compression rings.
    • Apex teat compressions.
    • Teat chaps.
  • Arguably the following conditions, also belong in this category:
    • Summer sores.
    • Teat eczema.
    • Black spot.
    • Ischemic teat.
  • These conditions are frequently complicated by bacterial agents.

Teat base and Apex compression rings

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Teat chaps and cracks

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Teat eczema or summer sores

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Ischemic teat necrosis

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Teat spider

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Supernumerary teats

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Blind quarters

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Martins C M M R, Pinheiro E S C, Gentilini M, Benavides M L & Santos M V (2017) Efficacy of a high free iodine barrier teat disinfectant for the prevention of naturally occurring new intramammary infections and clinical mastitis in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 100, 3930-3939 PubMed.
  • Besier J, Lind O &  Bruckmaier R M (2016) Dynamics of teat-end vacuum during machine milking: types, causes and impacts on teat condition and udder health – a literature review. Journal of Applied Animal Research 44, 263-272.
  • Clegg S R, Carter S D, Stewart J P, Amin D M, Blowey R W & Evans N J (2016) Bovine ischaemic teat necrosis: a further potential role for digital dermatitis treponemes. Veterinary Record 178, 71-71 PubMed.
  • Abdel-Hady A (2015) Clinical observations on some surgical udder and teat affections in cattle and buffaloes. Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences 2, 270-281.
  • Tolosa T, Verbeke J, Ayana Z, Piepers S, Supr√© K & De Vliegher S (2015) Pathogen group specific risk factors for clinical mastitis, intramammary infection and blind quarters at the herd, cow and quarter level in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia. Preventative Veterinary Medicine 120, 306-12 PubMed.
  • Abdel-Hady A (2015) Clinical observations on some surgical udder and teat affections in cattle and buffaloes. Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences 2, 270-281.
  • Bhowmik L, Khan P K, Bhowmick S, Bose R, Roy S, Maitra N J, Mukherjee P & Nandi S K (2015) Surgical management of teat spider and teat fistula in a dairy cow. Indian Journal of Animal Health 54, 157 – 158 VetMedResource.
  • Rathod S U, Khodwe P M, Raibole R D & Vyavahare S H (2009) Theloscopy – the advancement in teat surgery and diagnosis. Veterinary World 2, 34-37.
  • Franz S, Floek M & Hofmann-Parisot M (2009) Ultrasonography of the bovine udder and teat. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 25, 669-685.
  • Couture Y & Mulon P Y (2005) Procedures and surgeries of the teat. Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice 21, 173-204.
  • Baines J R & Hillerton J E (2004) Ischaemic necrosis of the base of the teat in dairy cows. Veterinary record 154, 443 PubMed.
  • Rasmussen M D (2003) Short term effect of the transition from conventional to automated milking on teat skin condition. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 1646-1652 PubMed.
  • Hillerton J E, Mein G A, Neijenhuis F & Morgan W F et al (2003) Evaluation of Bovine Teat Condition in Commercial Dairy Herds: Environmental Factors. Evaluation 3, 28.
  • Hillerton J E, Pankey J W & Pankey P (2002) The effect of over milking on teat condition. Journal of Dairy Research 69, 81-84
  • Wellenberg G J, Van der Poel W H M & Van Oirschot J T (2002) Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review. Veterinary Microbiology 88, 27-45 PubMed.
  • Neijenhuis F, Klungel G H & Hogeveen H (2001) Recovery of cow teats after milking as determined by ultrasonographic scanning. Journal of Dairy Science 84, 2599-2606 PubMed.
  • Hillerton J E, Ohnstad I, Baines J R & Leach K A (2000) Changes in cow teat tissue created by milking machine action. Journal of Dairy Research 67, 309-317 PubMed.
  • Brightling P, Mein G A, Hope A F, Malmo J & Ryan D P (2000) Countdown Downunder: Technotes for Mastitis Control. [online]. Available at: www.countdown.org.au.
  • Neijenhuis F, Barkema H W, Hogeveen H & Noordhuizen J (2000) Classification and longitudinal examination of callused teat ends in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 83, 2795-2804 PubMed.
  • Athar M, Muhammad G & Shakoor A (1999) Acquired contralateral teat spider in a cow and its successful treatment. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 19, 49-50.
  • Shearn M F H & Hillerton J E (1996) Hyperkeratosis of the teat duct orifice in the dairy cow. Journal of Dairy Research 63, 525-532 PubMed.
  • Fox L K (1992) Colonisation by Staphylococcus aureus on chapped teat skin. Journal of Dairy Science 75, 66-71.
  • Ducharme N G, Arighi M, Horney F D, Livesey M A, Hurtig M H & Pennock P (1987) Invasive Teat Surgery in Dairy Cattle. I. Surgical Procedures and Classification of Lesions. Canadian Veterinary Journal 28, 757-762 PubMed.
  • Hillerton J E, Bramley A J & Watson C A (1987) The epidemiology of summer mastitis; a survey of clinical cases. British Veterinary Journal 143, 520-530 PubMed.
  • Agger J F & Willeberg P (1986) Epidemiology of teat lesions in a dairy herd. Associations with sub-clinical mastitis. Nordisk Veterinaermedicin 38, 220-232 PubMed.
  • Sieber R L & Farnsworth R J (1984) Differential diagnosis of bovine teat lesions. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Large Animal Practice 6, 313-322 PubMed.
  • Francis P G (1984) Teat skin lesions and mastitis. British Veterinary Journal 140, 430-436.
  • Sieber R L & Farnsworth R D (1981) Prevalence of chronic teat-end lesions and their relationship to intramammary infection in 22 herds of dairy cattle. JAVMA 178, 1263-1267 PubMed.
  • Schultze W D & Smith J W (1972) Effectiveness of post-milking teat dips. Journal of dairy science 55, 426-431.

Other sources of information

  • Mc Gavin M D & Zachary J F (2012) Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Diseases. Chapter 18 Female Reproductive System and Mammary Gland. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp 1125.
  • Blowey R & Weaver A D (2011) Colour Atlas of Diseases and Disorders of Cattle. E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp 214.
  • Nichols S (2008) Teat Surgery in cattle. In: Current Veterinary Therapy: Food Animal Practice, Chapter 82.
  • Lisie W, Divers J T, Ducharme N & Frank L W (2008) Diseases of the Teats and Udder. In: Rebhuns Disease of Dairy Cattle. 2nd edn. Elsevier Health Sciences, Saunders. pp 327-394.
  • Scott D W (2008) Colour Atlas of farm animal dermatology. In: Environmental skin diseases. John Wiley & Sons. pp 69-80.
  • Ohnstad I, Mein G A, Baines J R, Rasmussen M D & Farnsworth R et al (2007) Addressing teat condition problems. In: National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting Proceedings. San Antonio, Texas, USA. pp.188-199.
  • Timms L (2004) Winter conditions and teat health. 43rd National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting Proceedings. Charlotte, North Carolina. pp 143-158.
  • Britten A, Hansen N & Pradraza J (2004) Effect of teat dips on hyperkeratosis. 43rd National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting Proceedings. Charlotte North Carolina, USA. pp 286-287.
  • Jackson P G G & Cockcroft P D (2002) Clinical examination of the udder. In: Clinical Examination of Farm Animals. 1st edn. Blackwell Science, Chapter 12. pp 154-166.
  • Nickerson S C (2001) Choosing the best teat dip for mastitis control and milk quality. National Mastitis Council-PDPW Milk.
  • Hillerton J E, Middleton N & Shearn M F H (2001) Evaluation of bovine teat condition in commercial dairy herds: 5 A portfolio of teat conditions. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Mastitis and Milk Quality NMC/AABP. Vancouver. pp 472-473.
  • Weaver D A & Blowey R (2001) Colour Atlas of Diseases and Disorders of Cattle. Chapter 11. In: Udder and teat disorders. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp 203- 218.
  • Mein G A, Neijenhuis F, Morgan W F, Reinemann D J & Hillerton J E et al (2001) Evaluation of bovine teat condition in commercial dairy herds: 1. Non-infectious factors. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Mastitis and Milk Quality NMC/AABP. Vancouver, BC, Canada.pp 347-351.


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