Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Cryptorchid castration - techniques

Contributor(s): Ash Phipps , Adam Dunstan-Martin

Introduction

  • Congenital cryptorchidism is a rare condition seen in bulls where there is failure of normal testicular descent.
  • Testicles normally pass from the abdomen to the scrotum between 3.25 and 4 months of gestation.
  • The condition may be bilateral or unilateral, with the latter condition being associated with subnormal fertility (still able to sire progeny).
  • In the unilateral condition, the left testis is more often retained. 
  • The undescended testes may be located in the inguinal region or within the abdomen: 
    • Inguinal retention is when a testis has passed through the vaginal ring but failed to enter the scrotum.
    • Abdominal retention is where a testis has not passed through the vaginal ring.
  • Testes retained in the abdomen are usually devoid of active seminiferous tubules, and therefore, these animals are infertile.
  • Cryptorchid animals should not be used for breeding as the condition is heritable and they are sub fertile.
  • Iatrogenic cryptorchidism may occur as a result of poor castration technique. 
    • Failure to include both testes within a rubber ring would be an example of such an occurrence.

Diagnosis

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Inguinal Testis – surgical technique

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Abdominal testes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Kaneko Y, Torisu S, Kitahara G, Hidaka Y et al (2015) Laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy in standing bullsJournal of Veterinary Medical Science 77 (5), pp 631-635 PubMed.
  • Shimada Y, Kobayashi O & Tanaka H (2010) Cryptorchidectomy Via Flank Incision under a Standing Position in Fattening Calves. J. Livestock Med (57) pp 543–545 (in Japanese).
  • Rodgerson D H & Hanson R R (1997) Cryptorchidism in horses. 1. Anatomy, causes, and diagnosis. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 19 (11), pp 1280.
  • Rodgerson D H & Hanson R R (1997) Cryptorchidism in horses. 2. Treatment. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 19 (12), pp 1372.
  • Jean G S, Gaughan E M & Constable P D (1992) Cryptorchidism in North American cattle: breed predisposition and clinical findings. Theriogenology 38 (5), pp 951-958 PubMed.
  • Rebhun W C (1976) Bilateral cryptorchidism in a bullThe Cornell veterinarian 66 (1), pp 10-13.

Other sources of information

  • Holtgrew-Bohling K J (2014) Large animal clinical procedures for veterinary technicians. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  • Ames N K (2014) In: Noordsy’s Farm Animal Surgery. Ed: Wiley Blackwell. 5th Edn. ISBN: 978-1-118-35260-1.
  • Parkinson T J, Vermunt J J & Malmo J (2010) Diseases of cattle in Australasia: a comprehensive textbook. New Zealand Veterinary Association Foundation for Continuing Education, Wellington, NZ.
  • Anderson D E & Rings M (2008) Current veterinary therapy: food animal practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. St Louis, Missouri, USA.
  • Fubini S L & Ducharme N (2004) Farm animal surgery. Elsevier Health Sciences, St Louis, Missouri, USA.


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