Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Hypersalivation

Synonym(s): excessive salivation, ptyalism
 

Contributor(s): Sophie Mahendran , Graham Duncanson

Overview of saliva production

  • The major salivary glands are the parotid, mandibular, sublingual and zygomatic glands
    • They are made up of Acini glands that secrete a fluid containing mainly water, bicarbonate, electrolytes, mucin and the enzymes amylase and lipase.
    • The mandibular ducts enter the oral cavity on the ventral surface of the sublingual caruncles.
    • The parotid gland ducts enter the oral cavity on the cheek opposite the upper 2nd molar.
  • Cattle produce around 110-180L of saliva per day, with a key role in buffering rumen pH Rumen pH and the importance of saliva.
    • Saliva is normally produced in response to stimulation of the mouth, esophagus and reticulo-rumen.
  • Excessive salivation or ptyalism can be due to hypersialosis (hypersecretion of saliva) or pseudoptyalism (secondary to disorders in cows producing a normal quantity of saliva).
  • It can be identified by observation of the cow:
    • Drooling, foam around lips, wet appearence around and underneath the muzzle .
  • It can be caused by multiple disorders and diseases (as detailed below).

Infectious causes of excess saliva production

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Neoplastic causes of excess salivation

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Other causes of excess salivation

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Misk N A,  Misk T A, Semiekal M A & Ahmed A F (2014) Affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes. Open veterinary journal 4 (1), 65-68 PubMed.
  • Lanyon S R, Hill F I, Reichel M P & Brownlie J (2014) Bovine viral diarrhoea: pathogenesis and diagnosis. The veterinary journal 199 (2), 201-209 PubMed.
  • Russell G C, Stewart J P & Haig D M (2009) Malignant Catarrhal Fever: a review. The veterinary journal 179 (3), 324-335 PubMed.
  • Alexandersen S, Zhang Z, Donaldson A I & Garland A J M (2003) The pathogenesis and diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease. Journal of comparative pathology 129 (1), 1-36 PubMed.
  • Maekawa M I, Beauchemin K A, Christensen D A (2002) Effect of concentrate level and feeding management on chewing activities, saliva production, and ruminal pH of lactating dairy cows. J dairy sci 85 (5), 1165-1175 PubMed.
  • Schmitt B (2002) Vesicular stomatitis. Veterinary clinics of north america: food animal practice 18 (3), 453-459.
  • Denghani S N, Lischer C J, Iselin U, Kaser-Hotz B & Auer J A (1994) Sialography in cattle: technique and normal appearance.Veterinary radioology and ultrasonography 35 (6), 433-439.
  • Bundza A (1983) Primary salivary gland neoplasia in three cos. Journal of comparative pathology 93, 629-632.


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