Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Mastitis: unusual forms overview

Synonym(s): Klebsiella, Enterobacter, E. aerogenes, E. cloacae, Serratia, S. marcescens, S. liquefaciens, Pseudomonas, P. aeruginosa, Yeast, Candida, Prototheca, Mycoplasma

Contributor(s): Andrew Henderson, Alexander Corbishley

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Introduction

  • Mastitis is defined as ‘inflammation of the udder’ and may have an infectious or non-infectious etiology.
  • Infectious pathogens implicated in mastitis include bacteria, mycoplasma, yeast and algae.
  • Non-infectious causes of mastitis may include external trauma to the mammary gland, milk stasis and iatrogenic causes, ie infusion of irritants.
  • The most common mastitis pathogens include:
    • E. coli.
    • Klebsiella.
    • Streptococcus spp  (agalactiae, dysgalactiae and uberis).
    • Staphylococcus.
    • Trueperella.
  • Information on these more common pathogens, listed above, may be found by following the individual links (see related content).
  • This article focuses on the more unusual forms of mastitis.

Pathogen diversity

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Enterobacter

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Serratia

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Pseudomonas

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Yeasts

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Prototheca

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Mycoplasma

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bradley A J et al (2015) An investigation of the efficacy of a polyvalent mastitis vaccine using different vaccination regimens under field conditions in the United Kingdom. J Dairy Sci 98 (3), 1706-1720 PubMed.
  • Onozaki M et al (2013) Detection and identification of genotypes of prototheca zopfii in clinical samples by quantitative PCR analysis. Jap J Infect Dis 66 (5), 383–390 PubMed.
  • Schukken Y et al (2012) The "other" gram-negative bacteria in mastitis: Klebsiella, Serratia and more. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 28 (2), 239-56 PubMed.
  • Muellner P et al (2011) The integration of molecular tools into veterinary and spatial epidemiology. Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiol 2 (3), 159-171 PubMed.
  • Nam H M et al (2009) Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis between 2003 and 2008 in Korea. J Dairy Sci 92 (5), 2020-2026 PubMed.
  • Möller A, Truyen U & Roesler U (2007) Prototheca zopfii genotype 2-The causative agent of bovine protothecal mastitis? Vet Microbiol 120 (3-4), 370-374 PubMed.
  • Malinowski E et al (2006) Etiological agents of dairy cows’ mastitis in western part of Poland. Polish J Vet Sci 9 (3), 191-194 PubMed.
  • Roesler U et al (2006) Diversity within the current algal species Prototheca zopfii: A proposal for two Prototheca zopfii genotypes and description of a novel species, Prototheca blaschkeae sp. nov. Int J Systematic Evolution Microbiol 56 (6), 1419-1425 PubMed.
  • Hogan J & Smith K L (2003) Coliform mastitis. Vet Res 34 (5), 507-519 PubMed.
  • Bradley A J (2002) Bovine mastitis: An evolving disease. Vet J 164 (2), 116–128 PubMed.
  • Cocolin L et al (2002) An application of PCR-DGGE analysis to profile the yeast populations in raw milk. Int Dairy J 12 (5), 407–411.
  • Jánosi S et al (2001) Review of the microbiological, pathological, and clinical aspects of bovine mastitis caused by the alga Prototheca zopfii. Vet Quarterly 23 (2), 58–61 PubMed.
  • Bradley A J & Green M J (2000) A study of the incidence and significance of intramammary enterobacterial infections acquired during the dry period. J Dairy Sci 83 (9), 1957–1965 PubMed.
  • Daly M et al (1999) Molecular analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Epidemiological investigation of mastitis outbreaks in Irish dairy herds. Appl Environ Microbiol 65 (6), 2723–2729 PubMed.
  • Taylor J H, Rogers S J & Holah J T (1999) A comparison of the bactericidal efficacy of 18 disinfectants used in the food industry against escherichia coli O157 : H7 and pseudomonas aeruginosa at 10 and 20 degrees C. J Applied Microbiol 87 (5), 718–725 PubMed.
  • Barkema H W et al (1998) Incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds grouped in three categories by bulk milk somatic cell counts. J Dairy Sci 81 (2), 411–419 PubMed.
  • Sol J et al (1998) Mastitis following drying up associated with teat wipes contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Tijdschrift voor diergeneeskunde 123 (4), 112–113 PubMed.
  • Kamarudin M et al (1996) Environmental reservoirs for Serratia marcescens intramammary infections in dairy cows. J Am Vet Med Assoc 4, 555–558 PubMed.
  • Elad D et al (1995) Feed contamination with Candida krusei as a probable source of mycotic mastitis in dairy cows. J Am Vet Med Assoc 207 (5), PubMed.
  • AalbaeK B et al (1994) Mycotic and algal bovine mastitis in Denmark. APMIS 102 (1-6), 451–456 PubMed.
  • Ruegg P L et al (1992) Microbiologic investigation of an epizootic of mastitis caused by Serratia marcescens in a dairy herd. J Am Vet Med Assoc 200 (2), 184–189 PubMed.
  • Todhunter D A, Smith K L & Hogan J S (1991) Serratia species isolated from Bovine intramammary infections. J Dairy Sci 74 (6), 1860–1865 PubMed.
  • Wilson D J et al (1990) Serratia marcescens mastitis in a dairy herd. J Am Vet Med Assoc 196 (7), 1102–1105 PubMed.
  • Watts J L (1988) Etiological agents of bovine mastitis. Vet Microbiol 16 (1), 41-66 PubMed.
  • Bowman G L et al (1986) Serratia liquefaciens mastitis in a dairy herd. J Am Vet Med Assoc 189 (8), 913–915 PubMed.
  • Spalton D E (1985) Bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: a case study. Vet Rec 116 (13), 347–349 PubMed.
  • Isaksson A & Holmberg O (1984) Serratia-mastitis in cows as a herd problem. Nordisk Veterinaermedicin 36 (11), 354–60 PubMed.
  • Fox J G et al (1981) Nosocomial transmission of Serratia marcescens in a veterinary hospital due to contamination by benzalkonium chloride. J Clin Microbiol 14 (2), 157–160 PubMed.
  • Barnum D A, Thackeray E L & Fish N A (1958) An outbreak of mastitis caused by Serratia Marcescens. Can J Comp Med Vet Sci 22 (11), 392–395 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Payne B et al (2013) The Aetiology of Bovine Mastitis in UK Dairy Herds. In: Proc British Mastitis Conference. pp 59-60.
  • Bradley A J, Barkema H, Biggs A, Green M & Lam T (2012) Control of Mastitis and Enhancement of Milk Quality. In: Dairy Herd Health. pp 117-168.
  • Quinn P et al (2011) Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease. 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Divers T & Peek S (2008) Eds Rebhun’s Diseases of Dairy Cattle. Elsevier, USA.


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