Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Mastitis: antibiotic therapy and treatment strategies

Synonym(s): Udder health, pharmacology, one health, herd health, antimicrobial
 

Contributor(s): Al Manning , James Breen

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Introduction

  • Bovine mastitis is a significant disease, particularly in dairy cattle.
    • Hanks and Kossaibati (2016) estimated the UK median incidence at 36 cases per 100 cows per year.  
    • Bradley et al (2007) estimated the incidence at 47-71 cases per 100 cows per year.  
  • Almost all cases are associated with bacteria, and as such antibiotics are the most commonly used treatment.
  • There are more antibiotics licensed for treatment of bovine mastitis than any other single condition in any veterinary species!

Common pathogens

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Suitable therapies

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Treatment strategies

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Pharmacology of the mammary gland

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Systemic or intramammary therapy

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Responsible use of antibiotics

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Complementary therapy

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Conclusions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers:

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • McDougall S, Abbeloos E, Piepers S, Rao A S, Astiz S, van Werven T & Pérez-Villalobos N (2016) Addition of meloxicam to the treatment of clinical mastitis improves subsequent reproductive performance. Journal of Dairy Science 99 (3), 2026–2042 PubMed.
  • Hanks J & Kossaibati M (2016) Key Performance Indicators for the UK national dairy herd.
  • Bradley A J, Breen J, Payne B, White V & Green M J (2015) An investigation of the efficacy of a polyvalent mastitis vaccine using different vaccination regimens under field conditions in the United Kingdom. Journal of Dairy Science 98 (3), 1706–20 PubMed.
  • Randall L, Heinrich K, Horton R, Brunton L, Sharman M, Bailey-Horne V & Jones J (2014) Detection of antibiotic residues and association of cefquinome residues with the occurrence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in waste milk samples from dairy farms in England and Wales in 2011. Research in Veterinary Science 96 (1), 15–24 PubMed.
  • Swinkels J M, Cox P, Schukken Y H & Lam T J G M (2013) Efficacy of extended cefquinome treatment of clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 96 (8), 4983–92 PubMed.
  • Brunton L A, Duncan D, Coldham N G, Snow L C & Jones J R (2012) A survey of antimicrobial usage on dairy farms and waste milk feeding practices in England and Wales. Veterinary Record PubMed.
  • Katholm J, Bennedsgaard T W, Koskinen M T & Rattenborg E (2012) Quality of bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds based on real-time polymerase chain reaction identification of mastitis pathogens. Journal of Dairy Science 95 (10), 5702–8 PubMed.
  • Whittem T, Whittem J H & Constable P D (2012) Modelling the concentration-time relationship in milk from cattle administered an intramammary drug. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 35 (5), 460–471 PubMed.
  • Holmes M A & Zadoks R N (2011) Methicillin Resistant S. aureus in Human and Bovine Mastitis. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 16 (4), 373–382.
  • Lago A, Godden S M, Bey R, Ruegg P L & Leslie K (2011) The selective treatment of clinical mastitis based on on-farm culture results: I. Effects on antibiotic use, milk withholding time, and short-term clinical and bacteriological outcomes. Journal of Dairy Science PubMed.
  • Suojala L, Simojoki H, Mustonen K, Kaartinen L & Pyörälä S (2010) Efficacy of enrofloxacin in the treatment of naturally occurring acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science, 93 (5), 1960–9 PubMed.
  • Koskinen M T, Wellenberg G J, Sampimon O C, Holopainen J, Rothkamp A, Salmikivi L, Pyörälä S (2010) Field comparison of real-time polymerase chain reaction and bacterial culture for identification of bovine mastitis bacteria. Journal of Dairy Science 93 (12), 5707–5715 PubMed.
  • Bradley A J & Green M J (2009) Factors affecting cure when treating bovine clinical mastitis with cephalosporin-based intramammary preparations. Journal of Dairy Science PubMed.
  • Pyörälä S (2009) Treatment of mastitis during lactation. Irish Veterinary Journal 6240–44.
  • McDougall S, Bryan M & Tiddy R M (2009) Effect of treatment with the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory meloxicam on milk production, somatic cell count, probability of re-treatment, and culling of dairy cows with mild clinical mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 92 (9), 4421–31 PubMed.
  • Bradley A J, Leach K A, Breen J E, Green L E & Green M J (2007) Survey of the incidence and aetiology of mastitis on dairy farms in England and Wales. Veterinary Record 160 (8), 253–257 PubMed.
  • Pol M & Ruegg P L (2007) Treatment practices and quantification of antimicrobial drug usage in conventional and organic dairy farms in Wisconsin. Journal of Dairy Science 90 (1), 249–61 PubMed.
  • McDougall S, Agnew K E, Cursons R, Hou X X & Compton C R W (2007) Parenteral treatment of clinical mastitis with tylosin base or penethamate hydriodide in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 90 (2), 779–789.
  • Gehring R & Smith G W (2006) An overview of factors affecting the disposition of intramammary preparations used to treat bovine mastitis. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics PubMed.
  • Sérieys F, Raguet Y, Goby L, Schmidt H & Friton G (2005) Comparative Efficacy of Local and Systemic Antibiotic Treatment in Lactating Cows with Clinical Mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science, 88 (1), 93–99 PubMed.
  • Hoe F G H & Ruegg P L (2005) Relationship between antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical mastitis pathogens and treatment outcome in cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 227 (9), 1461–1468 PubMed.
  • Constable P D & Morin D E (2003) Treatment of clinical mastitis: Using antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for treatment decisions. Veterinary Clinics of North America - Food Animal Practice 19 (1), 139–155 PubMed.
  • Taponen S, Jantunen A, Pyörälä E & Pyörälä S (2003) Efficacy of targeted 5-day combined parenteral and intramammary treatment of clinical mastitis caused by penicillin-susceptible or penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 44 (1-2), 53–62.
  • Gillespie B E, Moorehead H, Lunn P, Dowlen H H, Johnson D L, Lamar K C & Oliver S P (2002) Efficacy of extended pirlimycin hydrochloride therapy for treatment of environmental Streptococcus spp and Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections in lactating dairy cows. Veterinary Therapeutics : Research in Applied Veterinary Medicine 3 (4), 373–80 PubMed.
  • Erskine R J, Wagner S & DeGraves F J (2003) Mastitis therapy and pharmacology. Veterinary Clinics of North America - Food Animal Practice 19 (1), 109–138.
  • Oliver S P, Almeida R A, Gillespie B E, Ivey S J, Moorehead H, Lunn P & Lamar K C (2003) Efficacy of extended pirlimycin therapy for treatment of experimentally induced Streptococcus uberis intramammary infections in lactating dairy cattle. Veterinary Therapeutics : Research in Applied Veterinary Medicine 4 (3), 299–308 PubMed.
  • Rossitto P V, Ruiz L, Kikuchi Y, Glenn K, Luiz K, Watts J L & Cullor J S (2002) Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns for Environmental Streptococci Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Central California Dairies. Journal of Dairy Science 85 (1), 132–138 PubMed.
  • Gruet P, Maincent P, Berthelot X & Kaltsatos V (2001) Bovine mastitis and intramammary drug delivery: review and perspectives. Adv.Drug Deliv Rev 50 (0169-409X), 245–259 PubMed.
  • Hillerton J E & Semmens J E (1999) Comparison of treatment of mastitis by oxytocin or antibiotics following detection according to changes in milk electrical conductivity prior to visible signs. Journal of Dairy Science 82 (1), 93–8 PubMed.
  • Erskine R J, Wilson R C, Tyler J W, McClure K A, Nelson R S & Spears H J (1995) Ceftiofur distribution in serum and milk from clinically normal cows and cows with experimental Escherichia coli-induced mastitis. American Journal of Veterinary Research 56 (4), 481–5 PubMed.
  • Güterbock W M (1995) Oxytocin and other alternatives to antibiotic therapy of clinical mastitis. Cattle Practice. 3, 125-130.
  • Erskine R J, Bartlett P C, Crawshaw P C, Gombas D M, Bauer A W, Kirby W M M & Saran A (1994) Efficacy of intramuscular oxytetracycline as a dry cow treatment for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 77 (11), 3347–53 PubMed.
  • Pyörälä S, Kaartinen L, Käck H & Rainio V (1994) Efficacy of Two Therapy Regimens for Treatment of Experimentally Induced Escherichia coli Mastitis in Cows. Journal of Dairy Science 77 (2), 453–461 PubMed.
  • Watts J L (1988) Etiological agents of bovine mastitis. Veterinary Microbiology 16 (1), 41–66.

Other sources of information:

  • World Health Organisation (2016) Critically Important Antimicrobials for Human Medicine - 5th Revision. Geneva, Switzerland. 
  • Biggs A (2009) Mastitis in Cattle. Crowood Press.
  • Divers T J & Peek S F (2008) Rebhun’s Diseases of Dairy Cattle. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Organisation(s)

  • Royal Veterinary College.


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