Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Hypercapnia

Synonym(s): Increase in partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood (PaCO2)

Contributor(s): Gayle Hallowell, Vetstream Ltd , Alex Dugdale

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Definition

  • An increase in partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood (PaCO2).
  • The term hypercapnia is often used to describe increased end-expiratory partial pressure of CO2 (ETCO2) as this pressure is normally correlated to the PaCO2.
  • However, because cows can develop large discrepancies between their PaCO2 and ETCO2 during anesthesia, ETCO2 should not be relied upon alone to accurately measure the magnitude of hypercapnia, and PaCO2 should ideally be evaluated using blood gas analysis.
  • Cattle breathe fast under anesthesia, with small tidal volumes, which sometimes  results in hypoventilation and hypercapnia. However, this is rare in the author’s experience.

Measurement of carbon dioxide

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Causes of hypercapnia

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Hypoventilation

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Physiologic effects of hypercapnia

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Treatment of hypercapnia (in cattle under general anesthesia)

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Valverde A & Sinclair M (2015) Chapter 49 Ruminant Anesthesia. In: Veterinary anesthesia and analgesia. Blackwell Publishing.
  • Clarke K & Trim C (2014) Patient Monitoring and Clinical Measurement and Anaesthesia of Cattle. In: Veterinary anaesthesia. 11th edn. Elsevier.


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