Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Genomics: overview

Synonym(s): DNA, heredity, genetics, genotype, phenotype

Contributor(s): Mark Burnell , Denis Larkin

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Introduction

  • Genetics: the study of heredity.
  • Genomics: the branch of molecular biology concerned with structure, function, evolution and mapping of the genome.
  • A Genome, is an organism's entire genetic code (DNA sequence) contained as chromosomes (30 pairs in the bovine).
  • Genotype: the entire genetic constitution of an individual which expresses the phenotype eg recessive and dominant genes.
    • The bovine has 23,000 genes that we know of.  This is only 10% of the DNA!
    • Gene interactions, switching on and off etc are regulated by non-gene DNA in a highly complex way.  Research into this is ongoing.
  • Phenotype: the outward appearance of an animal in all of its anatomical, physiological and behavioral characteristics, as dictated by the genetic and environmental influences in its environment.
Print off the Farmer Factsheet on an Introduction to Genetics and Genomics to give to your clients.

Back to basics

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Relevance of genomics to cattle breeding

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Breeding reliability

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The importance of breeding

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Why should a dairy business consider using genomics?

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Genomic testing calves

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Will it pay off?

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Summary

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers


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