Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Feeding milk and milk replacers to calves

Synonym(s): Calf nutrition

Contributor(s): Ash Phipps, Neil Paton

Introduction

  • Under most dairy farming conditions it is common practice to remove calves from their dam within the first few hours of life and the calves are artificially reared.
  • After ensuring the calf receives adequate colostrum Colostrum: overview, the initial primary source of nutrition provided in the pre-weaning period is in the form of liquid whole milk or calf milk replacers supplemented with a roughage source and a commercial pellets and/or calf meal mix.

Energy requirements of calves

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Whole milk vs milk replacers

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Hygiene of milk used to feed calves

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Feeding systems

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Storage and handling milk used to feed calves

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Delivery systems

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMed Resource.
  • Iqbal Z, Hayat, Z, Abdullah, M, Javed,K & Ahamd N (2013) Milk and milk replacer performance in dairy calves. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 24(1), 52-54.
  • Khan M A, Weary D M, & von Keyserlingk M A G (2011) Invited review: Effects of milk ration on solid feed intake, weaning, and performance in dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 94, 1071-1081 PubMed.
  • Godden S M, Fetrow J P, Feirtag J M,  Green L R &  Wells S J (2005) Economic analysis of feeding pasteurized non-saleable milk versus conventional milk replacer to dairy calves. JAVMA 226, 1547-1554 PubMed.
  • Stewart S, Godden S, Bey R, Rapnicki P, Fetrow J et al (2005) Preventing bacterial contamination and proliferation during the harvest, storage, and feeding of fresh bovine colostrum. Journal of Dairy Science 88(7), 2571-2578 PubMed.
  • Selim S A & Cullor J S (1997) Number of viable bacteria and presumptive antibiotic residues in milk fed to calves on commercial dairies. JAVMA 211, 1029-1035 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Kertz A F & Loften J R (2013) Review: A historical perspective of specific milk replacer feeding programs in the United States and effects on eventual performance on Holstein dairy calves. The professional Animal Scientist 29, 321-332.
  • Bentley J  Automatic calf feeding systems: Is this your next Employee? Retrieved 6 March 2016, from: https://www.extension.iastate.edu/dairyteam/files/page/files/Automatic%20Calf%20Feeders%20Factsheet-2012.pdf
  • Dairy Australia. N. D. Understanding calf milk replacers. Available to download from: https://www.dairyaustralia.com.au/farm/animal-management/animal-welfare/calf-welfare.
  • Dairy Australia. N.D. Dairy Welfare we care: Calf management rearing healthy calves. Available to download from: https://www.dairyaustralia.com.au/farm/animal-management/animal-welfare/calf-welfare.
  • NRM. N.D. Calf rearing guide. Retrieved 14 June 2018 from http://nrm.co.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/FAR_06835_NRM_Calf_Rearing_Guide-NEW.pdf
  • Heinrichs J & Jones C (2011) Review of the recent research investigating effects of calf feeding programs on first lactation performance.  Retrieved 6 March 2016, from: http://extension.psu.edu/animals/dairy/nutrition/calves/feeding/das-11-172/extension_publication_file
  • Dairy Australia (2011) Rearing Healthy Calves: How to raise calves that thrive. Dairy Australia Ltd, Level 5, IBM Centre, 60 City Road, Southbank, VIC 3006, Dairy Australia.
  • Parkinson T J, Vermunt J J, & Malmo J (2010) Diseases of cattle in Australasia: A comprehensive textbook. VetLearn, Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Quigley J (2010) Calf Note# 146- Waste milk vs. milk replacer, revisited. Retrieved 4 March 2016, from: www.calfnotes.com/pdffiles/CN146.pdf
  • Quigley J (2010) Calf Note# 146- Consistency of milk feeding. Retrieved 5 March 2016, from: www.calfnotes.com/pdffiles/CN150.pdf
  • Bovine Alliance on Management & Nutrition (2008) A guide to calf milk replacers: Type, use and quality. AFIA Publications, 2101 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 916, Arlington, Virginia, 22201, USA. 
  • Hill T M, Bateman II H G,  Aldrich J M & Schlotterbeck R L (2008) Effect of consistency of nutrient intake from milk and milk replacer on dairy calf performance. Professional Animal Scientists 24, 85-92.
  • Nutrient Requirements of Domesticated Ruminants. (2007) CSIRO publishing, Collingwood, 3066, Victoria, Australia.
  • Quigley J (2007) Calf Note# 123- Cost of feeding milk replacer. Retrieved 4 March 2016, from: www.calfnotes.com/pdffiles/CN123.pdf   
  • Quigley J (2005) Calf Note# 98- What is the true cost of waste milk? Retrieved 4 March 2016, from: www.calfnotes.com/pdffiles/CN098.pdf
  • Quigley J (2003) Calf Note# 35- Accelerated feeding. What is your goal? Retrieved 5 March 2016, from: www.calfnotes.com/pdffiles/CN095.pdf
  • Moran J (2002) Calf rearing: A practical guide. Landlinks Press. Collingwood, 3066, Victoria, Australia.
  • Quigley J (2002) Calf Note# 35- Accelerated feeding #1 – current feeding programs. Retrieved 5 March 2016, from: www.calfnotes.com/pdffiles/CN084.pdf
  • National Research Council (2001) Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th Revised Edition. The National Academies Press.
  • Quigley J (2001) Calf Note# 35- Risks of using waste milk. Retrieved 4 March 2016, from: www.calfnotes.com/pdffiles/CN035.pdf
  • Schouten B (1999) Calf Rearing- Common Problems. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Seminar, Society of Dairy Cattle Veterinarians, New Zealand Veterinary Association 16, 29-31.
  • Lean I (1987) Nutrition of dairy cattle. The University of Sydney Post –Graduate Foundation in Vetrinary Science. Suite 93, Lincoln House, 280 Pitt Street, Sydney, 2000, New South Wales, Australia.


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