Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Ventral edema

Synonym(s): Udder edema

Contributor(s): Mo Kemp , Lisa Whitfield

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Definition

  • “Edema” is defined as an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces of tissues or in body cavities. 
  • Ventral edema is also known as udder edema and is the accumulation of fluid in the interstitial tissues of the mammary gland and tissues cranial and caudal to the udder.
  • For the purposes of this article, ventral edema of physiological origin will be classified as ‘udder edema’.
  • Udder edema can result from pathological processes or can be physiological. 
  • The exact mechanism for the development of physiological udder edema is unknown.
  • Physiological udder edema is seen in heifers and cows in the periparturient period  and is most common in high-producing dairy cattle (especially heifers). 
  • Pathological udder edema can be seen in conjunction with other clinical signs in disorders of the cardiovascular system, Caudal vena caval thrombosis Caudal vena caval thrombosis, mammary vein thrombosis and conditions resulting in hypoproteinaemia such as Johnes Johnes, amyloidosis, severe fluke infestation, severe malnutrition etc. These conditions normally present with edema formation in other parts of the body in addition to udder edema.
  • Al-Ani and Vestweber (1986) report an incidence of udder edema of 18-96% and Snider and others (1962) report an incidence of 18%.

Predisposing factors

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Clinical findings

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention and control

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Milne M H (2006) An Overview of Udder Oedema. UK Vet 11 (7), pp 1-3.
  • Gilbert R O & Schwark W S (1992) Pharmacologic considerations in the management of peripartum conditions in the cow. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal practice 8, 35–36 PubMed.
  • Al-Ani F K & Vestweber J G E (1986) Udder edema: an updated review. Veterinary Bulletin 56, 763–769.
  • Snider G W, Brightenback G E & Siegmund O H (1962) A new approach to edematous conditions of cattle. Canadian Veterinary Journal 3, 150–155 PubMed.
  • Greenhalgh J F D & Gardner K E (1958) Effect of heavy concentrate feeding before calving upon lactation and mammary gland edema. Journal Dairy Science 41, 822–829.

Other Sources of Information

  • Udder Health, UK Mastitis Panel (2019) Technical Bulletin: Issue 6. MSD Animal Health. Case study by Tom Greenham.
  • Mueller F J, Miller J K & Madsen F C (2012) Prevention of udder oedema in dairy cows. [online] Last accessed 5th December 2017. Available at: ArticleseXtension
  • Rebhun W C (1995) Diseases of the Teats and Udder. In: Diseases of Dairy Cattle. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. pp 2589–259.

Organisation(s)

  • Wern Veterinary Surgeons.


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