Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Dry cow therapy: overview

Contributor(s): Andrew Henderson , James Breen

Introduction

  • The dry period has two main aims:
  1. The cure of existing intramammary infections.
  2. The prevention of the acquisition of new intramammary infections.
  • The dry period is the best time to achieve cure of persistent infections, not the lactating period.
  • The etiology of mastitis in the UK has changed in the last century with a move away from contagious mastitis pathogens eg Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus.
    • This was partly driven by the implementation of the ‘5 Point Plan’ in the 1960s, resulting in widespread use of antibiotic dry cow therapy. 
    • From as early as the 1950s ADCT was being used to prevent summer mastitis. 
    • The susceptibility of the udder to new infection during the dry period has been recognized since the 1940s.
  • There has been a relative or absolute increase in the importance of environmental pathogens eg Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli in the etiology of mastitis.
  • As a result, there has been a shift in the aim of dry cow therapy; with most cows at drying off now being uninfected. Therefore, the relative importance of prevention of infection across the dry period has increased.
Print off the Bovis Farmer Factsheet, on Dry Cow Therapy, to give to your clients. DCT Farmer Factsheet

Antibiotic dry cow therapy (ADCT)

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Combination dry cow therapy (CDCT)

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Selective dry cow therapy (SDCT)

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Aseptic infusion technique

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • WHO (2017) WHO Advisory Group on Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (AGISAR) Critically Important Antimicrobials for Human Medicine 5th Revision 2016 Ranking of antimicrobial agents for risk management of antimicrobial resistance due to non-human us. [Online] [Accessed April 26, 2017]. Available at: apps.who.int.
  • BVA (2017) BVA Responsible use of antimicrobials in veterinary practice - The 7 - point plan. [Online] [Accessed April 26, 2017]. Available at: www.bva.co.uk.
  • Down P M et al (2016) Current management practices and interventions prioritised as part of a nationwide mastitis control plan. Veterinary Record PubMed.
  • O’Neill J (2016) Tackling drug resistant infections globally: final report and recommendatinos the review on antimicrobial resistance. [Online] [Accessed April 26, 2017]. Available at: amr-review.org.
  • Henderson A et al (2016) Prediction of intramammary infection status across the dry period from lifetime cow records. J Dairy Sci 99, 5586–5595 PubMed.
  • Breen J et al (2015) Bovine mastitis in the UK: past, present and future. Livestock, 4 – 8.
  • Breen J E et al (2014) Clinical forum: the role of dry cow therapy in the modern dairy herd. Livestock 19 (5), 202 – 208.
  • Oikonomou G et al (2014) Microbiota of cow’s milk; distinguishing healthy, sub-clinically and clinically diseased quarters. PloS one 9 (1), 1–11 PubMed.
  • Scherpenzeel C M et al (2014) Evaluation of the use of dry cow antibiotics in low somatic cell count cows. Journal of Dairy Science 97, 3606–3614 PubMed.
  • Rabiee A R & Lean  I J (2013) The effect of internal teat sealant products (Teatseal and Orbeseal) on intramammary infection, clinical mastitis, and somatic cell counts in lactating dairy cows: a meta-analysis. Journal of dairy science 96 (11), 6915–31 PubMed.
  • Green M & Bradley A (2013) The changing face of mastitis control. Vet Rec 173 (121), 517–521 PubMed.
  • AHDB (2013) Parlour Guide - How to infuse dry and lactating cow tubes. [Online] [Accessed April 26, 2017]. Available at: dairy.adhb.org.uk.
  • Saini V et al (2012) Herd-level association between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in bovine mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates on Canadian dairy farms. Journal of Dairy Science 95, 1921–1929 PubMed.
  • Bradley A J et al (2012) DairyCo Mastitis Control Plan - three year report 2008-2012. [Online].
  • Madouasse A et al (2012) Risk factors for a high somatic cell count at the first milk recording in a large sample of UK dairy herds. Journal of dairy science 95 (4), 1873–84 PubMed.
  • Wang X F et al (2012) Enhancement of antibacterial activity of tilmicosin against Staphylococcus aureus by solid lipid nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. The Veterinary Journal 191, 115–120 PubMed.
  • Bradley a J et al (2011) A comparison of broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum dry cow therapy used alone and in combination with a teat sealant. Journal of dairy science 94 (2), 692–704 PubMed.
  • Madouasse A et al (2010) Somatic cell count dynamics in a large sample of dairy herds in England and Wales. Preventive veterinary medicine 96 (1-2), 56–64 PubMed.
  • Bradley A J et al (2010) The use of a cephalonium containing dry cow therapy and an internal teat sealant, both alone and in combination. Journal of dairy science 93 (4), 1566–1577 PubMed.
  • Halasa T, Nielen M et al (2009) Meta-analysis of dry cow management for dairy cattle. Part 2. Cure of existing intramammary infections. Journal of dairy science 92 (7), 3150–7 PubMed.
  • Halasa T, Osterås O et al (2009) Meta-analysis of dry cow management for dairy cattle. Part 1. Protection against new intramammary infections. Journal of dairy science 92 (7), 3134–49 PubMed.
  • Green M J et al (2008) Cow, farm, and herd management factors in the dry period associated with raised somatic cell counts in early lactation. Journal of dairy science 91 (4), 1403–15 PubMed.
  • Newton H T et al (2008) Comparison of the efficacy of cloxacillin alone and cloxacillin combined with an internal teat sealant for dry-cow therapy. The Veterinary record 162, 678–684 PubMed.
  • Green M J et al (2007) Cow, farm, and management factors during the dry period that determine the rate of clinical mastitis after calving. Journal of dairy science 90 (8), 3764–76 PubMed.
  • Bradley A J & Green M J (2004) The importance of the nonlactating period in the epidemiology of intramammary infection and strategies for prevention. The Veterinary clinics of North America. Food animal practice 20 (3), 547–68 PubMed.
  • Bradley A, Huxley J & Green M (2003) A rational approach to dry cow therapy. In Practice 25 (1), 12–17.
  • Godden S et al (2003) Effectiveness of an Internal Teat Seal in the Prevention of New Intramammary Infections During the Dry and Early-Lactation Periods in Dairy Cows when used with a Dry Cow Intramammary Antibiotic. Journal of Dairy Science 86 (12), 3899–3911 PubMed.
  • Berry E A & Hillerton J E (2002) The effect of selective dry cow treatment on new intramammary infections. Journal of dairy science 85, 112–121 PubMed.
  • Green M J et al (2002) Influence of dry period bacterial intramammary infection on clinical mastitis in dairy cows. Journal of dairy science 85 (10), 2589–99 PubMed.
  • Huxley J N et al (2002) Evaluation of the Efficacy of an Internal Teat Sealer During the Dry Period. Journal of Dairy Science 85 (3), 551–561 PubMed.
  • Bradley A J & Green M J (2001) An investigation of the impact of intramammary antibiotic dry cow therapy on clinical coliform mastitis. Journal of dairy science 84 (7), 1632–1639 PubMed.
  • Bradley A J & Green M J (2000) A Study of the Incidence and Significance of Intramammary Enterobacterial Infections Acquired During the Dry Period. Journal of Dairy Science 83 (9), 1957–1965 PubMed.
  • Nickerson S C et al (1999) PHYSIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Comparison of Tilmicosin and Cephapirin as Therapeutics for Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis at Dry-off 1. Journal of Dairy Science 82, 696–703.
  • Coats L M (1998) An outbreak of Pseudomonas mastitis. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 46 (1), 39 PubMed.
  • Murphy J M & Hanson J J (1943) Infection of the bovine udder with coliform bacteria. Cornell Vet 33, 61–77.


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