Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Teat disorders: classification

Synonym(s): Short, medium and long-term changes to the teat, milking induced, environmental, infectious

Contributor(s): Daniel Steerforth , James Breen

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Introduction

  • The effects of milking management, milking equipment and the environment on teat tissues have been the subject of research for many years, with researchers aiming to reduce the rates of intramammary infections and improve the productivity and welfare of dairy cattle.
  • Changes to the teat tissues can play an initiating role in the development of mastitis, as they can facilitate penetration of the teat canal by contagious or environmental pathogens.
  • Theoretical and practical knowledge of teat end disorders and the methodology for evaluating teat health in dairy herds is a key skill for bovine veterinarians.

Overview of teat conditions and classification

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Short-term milking induced changes in bovine teats

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Medium-term milking induced changes in bovine teats

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Long-term environmentally induced changes in bovine teats

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource
  • Besier J, Lind O & Bruckmaier R M (2016) Dynamics of teat-end vacuum during machine milking: types, causes and impacts on teat condition and udder health – a literature review. Journal of Applied Animal Research 44, 263-272.
  • Britten A, Hansen N & Pradraza J (2004) Effect of teat dips on hyperkeratosis. 43rd National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting Proceedings. Charlotte North Carolina, USA. pp 286-287.
  • Timms L (2004) Winter conditions and teat health. 43rd National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting Proceedings. Charlotte, North Carolina. pp 143-158.
  • Illerton J E, Mein G A, Neijenhuis F, Morgan W F, Reinemann D J, Baines J R, Ohnstad I, Rasmussen M D, Timms  L, Britt J S & Farnsworth R (2003) Evaluation of Bovine Teat Condition in Commercial Dairy Herds: Environmental Factors. Evaluation 3, 28.
  • Rasmussen M D (2003) Short term effect of the transition from conventional to automated milking on teat skin condition. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 1646-1652 PubMed.
  • Hillerton J E, Pankey J W & Pankey P (2002) The effect of over milking on teat condition. Journal of Dairy Research 69, 81-84 PubMed.
  • Neijenhuis F, Klungel G H & Hogeveen H (2001) Recovery of cow teats after milking as determined by ultrasonographic scanning. Journal of Dairy Science 84, 2599-2606 PubMed.
  • Neijenhuis F, Barkema H W, Hogeveen H & Noordhuizen P T M (2000) Classification and longitudinal examination of callused teat ends in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 83, 2795-2804 PubMed.
  • Hillerton J E, Ohnstad L, Baines J R & Leach K A (2000) Changes in cow teat tissue created by milking machine actionJournal of Dairy Research 67, 309-317.
  • Shearn M F H & Hillerton J E (1996) Hyperkeratosis of the teat duct orifice in the dairy cow. Journal of Dairy Research 63, 525-532 PubMed.
  • Ducharme N G, Arighi M, Horney F D, Livesey M A, Hurtig M H & Pennock P (1987) Invasive Teat Surgery in Dairy Cattle. I. Surgical Procedures and Classification of Lesions. Canadian Veterinary Journal 28, 757-762 PubMed.
  • Sieber R L & Farnsworth R J (1984) Differential diagnosis of bovine teat lesions. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Large Animal Practice 6, 313-322 PubMed.
  • Francis P G (1984) Teat skin lesions and mastitis. British Veterinary Journal 140, 430-436 PubMed.
  • Sieber R L & Farnsworth R D (1981) Prevalence of chronic teat-end lesions and their relationship to intramammary infection in 22 herds of dairy cattle. JAVMA 178, 1263-1267 PubMed.
  • Schultze W D & Smith J W (1972) Effectiveness of post-milking teat dips. Journal of dairy science 55, 426-431.

Other sources of information

  • Ohnstad I, Mein G A, Baines J R, Rasmussen M D, Farnsworth R, Pocknee B, Hemling T C & Hillerton J E (2007) Addressing teat condition problems. National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting Proceedings. San Antonio, Texas, USA. pp 188-199.
  • Gooder R (2014) A Review of Mastitis Control Practices. A Senior Project presented to the Faculty of the Dairy Science Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. pp 10.  
  • Blowey R & Weaver A D (2011) Colour Atlas of Diseases and Disorders of Cattle. E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp 214.
  • Scott D W (2008) Environmental skin diseases. In: Colour Atlas of farm animal dermatology. John Wiley & Sons. pp 69-80.
  • Lisie W, Divers J T, Ducharme N & Frank L W (2008) Diseases of the Teats and Udder. In: Rebhuns Disease of Dairy Cattle. 2nd edn. Elsevier Health Sciences, Saunders. pp 327-394.
  • Ohnstad I, Mein G A, Baines J R, Rasmussen M D, Farnsworth R, Pocknee B, Hemling T C & Hillerton J E (2007) Addressing teat condition problems. National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting Proceedings. San Antonio, Texas, USA. pp 188-199.
  • Jackson P G G & Cockcroft P D (2002) Clinical examination of the udder. In: Clinical Examination of Farm Animals. 1st edn. Blackwell Science. pp 154-166.
  • Hillerton J E, Middleton N, Shearn M F H (2001) Evaluation of bovine teat condition in commercial dairy herds:  5 A portfolio of teat conditions. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Mastitis and Milk Quality NMC/AABP. Vancouver. pp 472-473.
  • Mein G A, Neijenhuis F, Morgan W F, Reinemann D J, Hillerton J E, Baines J R, Ohnstad I, Rasmussen M D, Timms L, Britt J S, Farnsworth R, Cook N & Hemling T (2001) Evaluation of bovine teat condition in commercial dairy herds: 1. Non-infectious factors. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Mastitis and Milk Quality NMC/AABP. Vancouver, BC, Canada. Pp 347-351.
  • Weaver D A & Blowey R (2001) Chapter 11: Udder and teat disorders. In: Colour Atlas of Diseases and Disorders of Cattle. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp 203- 218.
  • Nickerson S C (2001) Choosing the best teat dip for mastitis control and milk quality. National Mastitis Council-PDPW Milk Quality Conference. Proceedings pp 43-52.
  • Brightling P, Mein G A, Hope A F, Malmo J & Ryan D P (2000) Countdown Downunder: Technotes for Mastitis Control. Dairy Research and Development Corporation. Australia.


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