Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Cardiopulmonary arrest and emergency resuscitation

Synonym(s): CPR

Contributor(s): Gayle Hallowell, Alex Dugdale , Stefania Scarabelli

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Introduction

  • Cardiopulmonary arrest represents the cessation of functional and effective ventilation and circulation.
  • Survival rates are low in all species, including man, although this success depends upon underlying cause.
  • The most common reason for cardiopulmonary arrest in cattle is seen in the neonate, following dystocia or cesarean section. In this group, as the underlying cause is usually hypoxia and if CPR is initiated swiftly then survival rates can be good
  • Prevention of arrest is better than cure and all attempts to provide adequate monitoring and to respond to diagnosed problems promptly will be beneficial.
  • The initiating cause is often undetermined and may only be found at post-mortem examination or not at all.
  • The function of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems is to supply oxygenated blood to the tissues and remove waste products.
  • Interruption of ventilation or tissue perfusion will eventually cause cardiopulmonary arrest.
  • Algorithms and dosing charts, should be displayed in key areas of the clinic/ in the boot of a vet’s car- within easy access, should an emergency arise.
  • An ambu (self-inflating) bag should be carried with you or available
  • Drug dosages should be in ml for different weights of cows/ calves on the bottles and on the chart.
  • Drugs should be regularly checked to ensure they are in date as many have short shelf lives and are often ineffective when out of date.
  • Success depends on speed of detection and intervention.
  • Despite the lack of evidence, successful resuscitation is potentially more likely in a hospital enviroment due to increased facilities/personnel available. In the field techniques should be adapted as much as possible to attempt successful resuscitation.

How to recognize cardiac arrest

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Cardiac or respiratory arrest?

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Pathophysiology of cardiac arrest

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Sequelae

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Action to take

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Basic life support and performing CPR

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Best route for administration of drugs during CPR

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Drugs

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Successful resuscitation

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed And VetMedResource.
  •  Hallowell G D (2016) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A waste of time? Equine Vet Edu 28(5), 245-247.
  • Nolan J P (2013) International CPR guidelines - perspectives in CPR. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 27(3), 317-25 PubMed.
  • Boller M, Fletcher D J (2012) Prelude to RECOVER: time is up for veterinary CPR guidelines. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 22(2),143-144 PubMed.
  • Smarick S D, Haskins S C, Boller M, Fletcher D J (2012) RECOVER evidence and knowledge gap analysis on veterinary CPR. Part 6: Post-cardiac arrest care.​ J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 22 Suppl 1, S85-101 PubMed.
  • Brainard B M, Boller M, Fletcher D J (2012) RECOVER evidence and knowledge gap analysis on veterinary CPR. Part 5: Monitoring. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 22 Suppl 1, S65-84 PubMed.
  • Rozanski E A, Rush J E, Buckley G J, Fletcher D J, Boller M (2012) RECOVER evidence and knowledge gap analysis on veterinary CPR. Part 4: Advanced life support. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 22 Suppl 1, S44-64 PubMed.
  • Hopper K, Epstein SE, Fletcher DJ, Boller M (2012) RECOVER evidence and knowledge gap analysis on veterinary CPR. Part 3: Basic life support. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 22 Suppl 1, S26-43 PubMed.
  •  McMichael M, Herring J, Fletcher DJ, Boller M (2012) RECOVER evidence and knowledge gap analysis on veterinary CPR. Part 2: Preparedness and prevention. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 22 Suppl 1,S13-25 PubMed (Erratum in: J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2013 23(5),571).
  •  Boller M, Fletcher D J (2012) RECOVER evidence and knowledge gap analysis on veterinary CPR. Part 1: Evidence analysis and consensus process: collaborative path toward small animal CPR guidelines. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 22 Suppl 1, S4-12 PubMed.
  •  Fletcher D J, Boller M, Brainard B M, Haskins S C, Hopper K, McMichael M A, Rozanski E A, Rush J E, Smarick S D (2012) RECOVER evidence and knowledge gap analysis on veterinary CPR. Part 7: Clinical guidelines. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 22 Suppl 1, S102-31 PubMed.
  •  Nadkarni V (2012) The Road to RECOVERy: Hats off to the REassessment Campaign On VEterinary Resuscitation (RECOVER). J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 22 Suppl 1, S1-2 PubMed.
  • Field J M, Hazinski M F, Sayre M R, Chameides L, Schexnayder S M, Hemphill R, Samson R A, Kattwinkel J, Berg R A, Bhanji F, Cave D M, Jauch E C, Kudenchuk P J, Neumar RW, Peberdy M A, Perlman J M, Sinz E, Travers A H, Berg M D, Billi J E, Eigel B, Hickey R W, Kleinman M E, Link M S, Morrison L J, O'Connor R E, Shuster M, Callaway C W, Cucchiara B, Ferguson J D, Rea T D, Vanden Hoek T L (2010) Part 1: executive summary: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 122 18 Suppl 3), S640-656 PubMed.
  • Paradis N (1996) Cardiac arrest research in humans insights into failure. Resusc J 31(2), 93-100.


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