Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Lumpy skin disease

Synonym(s): Neethling virus, Knopvelsiekte

Contributor(s): Mike Reynolds , Kristina Mueller

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Introduction

  • Cause: lumpy skin disease virus, of the genus capripox virus.
  • Signs: pyrexia, lacrimation, acute milk drop, peripheral lymphadenopathy, development of nodules over the head, neck, udder and perineum which later develop necrotic plugs, mucopurulent ocular nasal discharge, keratitis, ulcerative lesions on the mucus membranes of the ocular, oral and nasal mucosa, limb and brisket oedema and a reluctance to move,  abortion and temporary or permanent infertility in bulls.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs consistent with disease, electron microscopy, virus neutralization and definitively PCR.
  • Treatment: restriction on movements and cull affected animals.
  • Prognosis: poor.
This is a notifiable disease in the UK and is an OIE-Listed disease 2018.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Transmission is mainly through blood-feeding insects and ticks.
  • Transmission via indirect or direct contact may also occur.  
  • Seminal transmission of the virus has been shown to occur and animals may become infected by ingestion of food or water contaminated with infected saliva.
  • Within ticks, transovarial transmission has been shown to occur and the virus has been demonstrated in all stages of tick development, including those off the host.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Outbreaks coincide with the onset of rain and clinical cases decrease with the onset of the dry season.
  • This is a typical scenario seen in vector borne disease.

Specific

  • Large numbers of infected vector species.
  • Communal grazing and the use of communal watering holes.
  • The presence of a naïve, at risk population.

Pathophysiology

  • Immunity to disease is thought to be mostly cell mediated.

Timecourse

  • The incubation period is one to four weeks.

Epidemiology

  • Bos taurus Bos taurus are more susceptible to disease than Bos indicus.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Beard P M (2016) Lumpy skin disease: a direct threat to Europe. Vet rec (178), 557-558 PubMed.
  • Tuppurainen E & Oura C (2014) Lumpy skin disease: an African disease getting closer to the EU. Vet red (175), 300-301 PubMed.
  • Tuppurainen E & Oura C (2012) Review: lumpy skin disease: an emerging threat to Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Transboundary and emerging diseases (59), 40-48 PubMed.
  • Woods J A (1988) Lumpy skin disease - a review. tropical animal health production (20), 11-20.

Other sources of information

  • Brown C & Torres A (2008) USAHA foreign animal diseases. 7th edn.


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